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107 Cards in this Set

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Antiseptic
Substance commonly used on living tissue to inhibit the growth and reproduction of microbes to prevent infection.
Asepsis
Absence of microbes, infection
Bioburden
the number of microbes or amount of organic debris on an object at any given time
Contamination
the presence of pathogenic materials
Cross-contamination
The contamination of a person or object by another
Disinfectant
chemical agent that kills most microbes, but usually not spores; usually used on inanimate objects: Too strong for living tissue
Fomite
an inanimate object upon which pathogens may be conveyed
Infection
the invasion of the human body or tissue by pathogenic microorganisms that reproduce and multiply causing disease
Nosocomial
an infection acquired within a health care setting
Pathogen
any microbe capable of causing disease
Resident flora
microbes which normally reside below the skin surface or within the body
Sepsis
infection, usually accompanied by fever, that results from the presence of pathogenic microorganisms
Spore
a resistant form of certain types of bacteria, able to survive in adverse conditions
Sterile
Item(s) that have been rendered free of all living microorganisms, including spores
Sterile field
specified area, usually the area immediately around the patient, that is considered free of microorganisms
Sterile technique
methods used to prevent contamination of the sterile field, patient pre-op, intra-op, and post-op
sterilization
the destruction of all microorganisms, including spores on inanimate objects.
Strike-through
contamination
contamination of a sterile field that occurs through the passage of fluid through or a puncture in a microbial barrier
Surgically clean
items mechancially cleaned and chemcially disinfected but not sterile
Transient flora
microbes which reside on the skin surface and are easily removed
Vector
a living carrier that transmits disease
SSI
Surgical Site Infection
Aerobic
Must have oxygen
Anaerobic
Live without oxygen
Cocci
Generally spherically shaped baterium
Bacilli
Generally rod-shaped bacterium
Staphylococcus Aureus
thrives in the nose. 25% of all people are colonized. aerobic, gram-positive cocci
CELLS
CONTAIN CYTOPLASM
CELLS
HAVE A PLASMA MEMBRANE
CELL MEMBRANE
SEPARATES CELL CONTENTS FROM TISSUE FLUID (INTERSTIAL)
ORGANELLES
SPECIALIZED STRUCTURES IN THE CELL
CERTAIN SUBSTANCES
CAN MOVE THROUGH THE PLASMA MEMBRANE AND IT BARS THE PASSAGE OF OTHERS
PLASMA MEMBRANE
INDENTIFIES A CELL AS COMING FROM ONE PARTICULAR INDIVIDUAL
CYTOPLASM
LIES BETWEEN THE PLASMA MEMBRANE AND THE NUCLEUS
ORGANELLES
ARE SMALL STRUCTURES AS PART OF THE CYTOPLASM
RIBOSOMES
HELP SYNTHESIZE PROTEINS AND MAKE ENZYMES
ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM
TRANSPORTS PROTEINS AND SYNTHESIZES LIPIDS
CELLULAR MEMBRANE MATERIAL
ARE MANUFACTURED IN THE ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM
GOLGI APPARATUS
CHEMICALLY PROCESSES SUBSTANCES FROM THE ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM
GOLGI APPARATUS
RELEASES ITS PROCESSED CHEMICALS FOR EXIT OUT OF THE CELL
MITOCHONDRIA
IS RESPONSIBLE FOR ATP SYNTHESIS (ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE)ALSO KNOWN AS THE "POWER HOUSE OF THE CELL"
ENERGY RELEASE FROM ATP SYNTHESIS
IS IMPORTANT FOR CELLULAR FUNCTION AND WORK (CELLULAR RESPIRATION)
LYSOSOMES
ARE KNOWN AS THE "CELLS DIGESTIVE SYSTEM"
LYSOSOMES PROTECT THE CELL
AGAINST DESTRUCTION FRO MICROORGANISMS
LYSOSOMES
CONTAIN ENZYMES THAT DIGEST FOOD COMPOUNDS
CENTRIOLES
FUNCTION IN CELL REPRODUCTION
CILLIA
ARE "HAIR-LIKE" EXTENSIONS ON THE EXPOSED AREA OF SOME CELLS
CILLIA
ARE ORGANELLES CAPABLE OF MOVEMENT (IN A WAVE LIKE MOTION)
FLAGELLA
IS A SINGLE PROJECTION EXTENDING FROM A CELL
FLAGELLA USE PROPULSIVE MOVEMENTS
TO "SWIM" OR MOVE TOWARDS ITS DESTINATION OR FUNCTION
NUCLEUS
CONTROLS EVERY ORGANELLE IN THE CYTOPLASM
CHROMOSOMES IN THE NUCLEUS
AID IN CELL DIVISION
CHROMATIN GRANULES IN THE NUCLEUS, DNA (DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID)
IS THE GENETIC MATERIAL OFTEN KNOWN AS THE "BLUE PRINT OF THE BODY"
ACTIVE TRANSPORT
REQUIRES ENERGY PRODUCED BY THE CELL
ATP (ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE)
IS NEEDED TO MOVE SUBSTANCES FROM A LOW CONCENTRATION TO A HIGH CONCENTRATION
ACTIVE TRANSPORT MOVES SUBSTANCES
"UP A CONCENTRATION GRADIENT" (ATP IS REQUIRE)
ION PUMPS
MOVE PARTICLES FOR LOW CONCENTRATION TO HIGH CONCENTRATION
PHAGOCYTOSIS
IS MOVEMENT OF BACTERIA OR OTHER PARTICLE INTO THE CELL (ACTIVE TRANSPORT)
INOCYTOSIS
IS MOVEMENT OF FLUID INTO A CELL (ACTIVE TRANSPORT)
PASSIVE TRANSPORT
REQUIRES NO ENERGY TO MOVE SUBSTANCES THROUGH THE CELL MEMBRANE
PASSIVE TRANSPORT INVOLVES
PASSAGE OF SUBSTANCES FROM A HIGH CONCENTRATION TO A LOW CONCENTRATION
PASSIVE TRANSPORT SUBSTANCES
MOVE DOWN A CONCENTRATION GRADIENT
DIFFUSION
IS THE MOVEMENT OF PARTICLES FROM HIGH CONCENTRATION TO LOW CONCENTRATION (NO ENERY IS NEEDED)
OSMOSIS
ALLOWS PASSAGE FOR SELECTED PARTICLES THROUGH THE MEMBRANE: ALLOWING NURTIENTS ENTRY AND NOT UNWANTED PARTICLES
FILTRATION
IS MOVEMENT OF WATER AND SMALL SOLUTE PARTICLES THROUGH A MEMBRANE
FILTRATION USES
GREATER PUSHING FORCE ON ONE SIDE FO THE MEMBRANE THAN THE OTHER SIDE (PASSIVE TRANSPORT IE: BLOOD PRESSURE)
HUMAN CELLS THAT REPRODUCE
DO SO BY A PROCESS CALLED MITOSIS
CHROMOSOMES
MAKE HEREDITY POSSIBLE (DNA)
EACH DNA MOLECULE
IS MADE UP OF BASE PAIRS
A GENE IS
A SPECIFIC SEGMENT OF THE BASE PAIR
BASE PAIRS ARE MADE UP
OF SUGAR AND PHOSPHATE UNITS
GENETIC CODE
THE STORE CODE OF INFORMATION IN EACH GENE.
TRANSCRIPTION AND TRANSLATION
THE PROCESS OF TRANSFERRING INFORMATION FROM THE NUCLEUS INTO THE CYTOPLASM.
IN TRANSCRIPTION THE DNA MOLECULE
SEPERATES, COPIES AND IS PASSED INTO THE CYTOPLASM
STAGES OF CELL DIVISION ARE
INTERPHASE
PROPHASE
METAPHASE
ANAPHASE
TELOPHASE
IN INTERPHASE THE CELL IS SAID TO BE
RESTING, ONLY IN THE STANDPOINT OF CELL DIVISION
PROPHASE
THE FIRST STAGE OF MITOSIS
IN THE METAPHASE OF CELL MITOSIS
THE CHROMOSOMES HAVE ALIGNED THEMSELVES ACROSS THE CENTER OF THE CELL
ANAPHASE
THE CHROMOSOMES BREAK APART AND MOVE AWAY FROM THE CENTER FO THE CELL
TELAPHSE
CELL DIVISION IS COMPLETE WITH THE APPEARANCE OF TO NUCLEI
HYPERTROPHY
IS AN INCREASE IN SIZE OF INDIVIDUAL CELLS
ATROPHY
IS DECREASE IN SIZE OF INDIVIDUAL CELLS
HYPERPLASIA
IS AN INCREASE IN CELL REPRODUCTION
ANAPLASIA
IS THE PRODUCTION OF ABNORMAL CELLS
THE FOUR MAIN KINDS OF TISSUE IN THE HUMAN BODY ARE:
EPITHELIAL
CONNECTIVE
MUSCLE
NERVOUS TISSUE
EPITHELIAL TISSUE/CELLS
ARE PACKED CLOSE TOGETHER AND FORM CONTINUOS SHEETS
SIMPLE SQUAMOUS
CONSISTS OF SINGLE LAYER THAT SUBSTANCES CAN READILY PASS THROUGH
STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS
CONSISTS OF SEVERAL LAYERS USED FOR PROTECTION AGAINST MICROBES
CONNECTIVE TISSUE
IS THE MOST ABUNDANT TISSUE IN THE BODY
CONNECTIVE TISSUE
CONNECTS TISSUE TOGETHER AND FORMS A SUPPORTING FRAMEWORK
AREOLAR AND ADIPOSE TISSUE
GIVES FORM TO THE INTERNAL ORGANS
FIBROUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE
COMPOSES TENDONS
BONE CONNECTIVE TISSUE
IS HARD AND CALCIFIED
BONE
IS A STORAGE AREA FOR CALCIUM AND ALSO PROVIDES SUPPORT AND PROTECTION
CARTILAGE
HAS THE CONSISTENCY OF FIRM PLASTIC
BLOOD MATRIX
IS LIQUID AND HELPS TO TRANSPORT AND AND PROTECT
HEMOPOIETIC CONNECTIVE TISSUE
IS FOUND IN THE BONE MARROW AND ORGANS SUCH AS SPLEEN, TONSILS, AND LYMPH NODES
SKELETAL STRIATED MUSCLE TISSUE
IS CALLED VOLUNTARY THE WILLED CONTROL OF MUSCULAR CONTRACTION
SKELETAL MUSCLES
ARE ATTACHED TO BONES
CARDIAC MUSCLE TISSUE
FORMS THE WALLS OF THE HEART AND INVOLUNTARY CONTRACTIONS
SMOOTH MUSCLE
IS INVOLUNTARY DUE TO IT NOT BEING UNDER CONSCIENCE OR WILLFUL CONTROL
CONTRACTONS OF SMOOTH MUSCLE
HELP PROPEL FOOD TRHOUGH THE DIGESTIVE TRACT AND REGULATE THE DIAMETER OF BLOOD VESSELS
TISSUE
HAS THE CAPABILITY TO REPAIR OR REGENERATE
REGENERATION
THE GROWTH OF NEW TISSUE GROWTH
SCAR TISSUE
IS THE RESULT OF LARGE CELL DAMAGE
VERTICAL INCISION-MEDIAN
MIDDLE OF ABDOMEN

ANY ORGAN IN ABDOMINAL CAVITY

REPAIR HERNIAS
PARAMEDIAN
VERTICAL TO LEFT OR RIGHT OF ABDOMEN

LOWER LEFT FOR SIGMOID SURGERY

ANY ORGAN IN ABDOMEN