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23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Anal Cancers Commonest Types (3)
SCC
Transitional
Adeno/Melano/Mucoepidermal
A common Colon Ca?
NO - 1% of Colon Ca
What is Anal Bowen's Disease
Anal Carcinoma in Situ
What is the NIGRO Protocol
Anal Canal Epidermal Cancer Protocol with a 90% complete response rate and 85% 5yr survival

Chemo
Radio
follow up with scar biopsy
What is an Anal Fissure
Tear or fissure in anal epithelium
Commonest site of anal fissure
Posterior midline

(least blood flow)
Causes of anal fissures (3)
Constipation
Hyperactive Sphincter
Chron's
Symptoms of anal fissure
Pain (excruciating)
Blood on tissue
Sentinal tag/pile
Anal Fissure Treatment (Cons/Med/Surg)
Cons - Bath, Stool Softner, Fibre, Anal Hygeine
Med - Nitro Paste
Surg - Lateral internal sphincterotomy
Commonest site of anal fissure
Posterior midline

(least blood flow)
Causes of anal fissures (3)
Constipation
Hyperactive Sphincter
Chron's
Symptoms of anal fissure
Pain (excruciating)
Blood on tissue
Sentinal tag/pile
Anal Fissure Treatment (Cons/Med/Surg)
Cons - Bath, Stool Softner, Fibre, Anal Hygeine
Med - Nitro Paste
Surg - Lateral internal sphincterotomy
Cause of Anal Warts
HPV
Risk of anal warts
SCC
Treatment (Med, Surg)
Med - Topical Podophyllin
Surg - Resection/Laser ablation
What are Hemorrhoids
Engorged rectal venous plexus with protrusion of mucosa, anal margin or both
Symptoms of hemorrhoids
SCD, painful if below dentate line (external)
Causes of Hemorrhoids
Constipation
Pregnancy
Portal Hypertension
3 Hemorrhoid quadrants
Left lateral
Right Posterior
Right Anterior
Hemorrhoid Prolapse Degrees
1st - no prolapse
2nd - on defecation, spontaneous resolution
3rd - on defecation, manual reduction
4th - cannot be reduced
Hemorrhoid Treatment (Cons, Med, Surg)
Cons - Fibre, Baths, Hygeine
Med - Topical Steroids
Surg - Band ligation, Haemorrhoiectomy
Complications of Hemorrhoidectomy
Exsanguination, Infection, Incontinence, Anal stricture