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24 Cards in this Set

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**What is the purpose of using a drain?
Designed to channel or evacuate potentially harmful fluids (blood, pus, serum) away from wound or cavity
-May speed healing process, prevent complications
What are the 3 indications of using a drain?
1) Eliminate dead space
2) Evactuate existing collections of fluid (pus); provide drainage from contaminated/ infected sites
3) Prevent anticipated collections of fluid or gas (?)
What are the 2 types of drains?
1) Passive
2) Active
**What is a passive drain?
Uses naturally occurring pressure gradients, gravity, movement, and overflow
What are passive drains made of?
Soft latex (Penrose)* -not fenestrated
Rigid polypropylene, silicone, red rubber -fenestrated
How does fluid flow out when using a Penrose) drain?
Flows around outer surface- not fenestrated so doesn't flow through the drain
True or false. The type of drain used defines the classification of the drain.
False, active and passive has nothing to do w/ the type of drain, but can't use a Penrose for active because of put suction on it the drain just collapses
The rate of Penrose drainage relies on ________.
Surface area
**What is an active drain?
Use of "negative" pressure-suction
-Increases efficiency
-Independent of gravity*
What are 3 ways that active drains reduce the chance of infection?
1) Rigid tubes; fenestrated
2) Closed suction drainage (sterility control)
3) Continuous or intermittent
When are active drains used?
When in "deep" areas
There's a rigid fenestrated tube placed in a horse's pleural cavity to drain purulent material.
If there's a one way Heimlich valve on the end, what type of drain is this?
Passive
There's a rigid fenestrated tube placed in a horse's pleural cavity to drain purulent material.
If there's a condom on the end, what type of drain is this?
Passive
There's a rigid fenestrated tube placed in a horse's pleural cavity to drain purulent material.
If movement and ventilation increases fluid production, what kind of drain is this?
Passive - fluid is just putting pushed out= positive pressure, active uses negative pressure
You have an outdoor kitty with a warm painful swelling under the mandible, what's the next step?
Fine needle aspirate... shows pus, now what?
Incision, drainage
The efficiency of Penrose drains is related to ______.
Surface area
Is fenestration in Penrose drains recommended?
No, it's generally contraindicated
Is a single or double incision preferred for Penrose drains?
Single incision is theoretically more correct (fluid flows through lumen of drain), but 2 hole technique is easier (fluid flows around lumen)
What are the 3 types of closed suction used for active drainage?
1) Vacutainer method
2) Modified syringe
3) Commercial product
How do you know when to remove a drain?
Dependent on situation
-Usually based on fluid production, success of drainage, surgeon's impression
-Typically 2-5 days
What are 3 ways to maintain draining patency?
1) Initial flushing with heparin solutions
2) Use of coatings linked to heparin and antibiotics
3) ***Retrograde flushing once it is placed is contraindicated
What are the 5 potential complications of drains?
1) ***Blockage or obstruction (ineffectual)
2) Ascending infections
3) Delayed wound healing
4) May result in increased drainage (drain acting as irritant?)
5) Emphysema
What type of solution should be used to lavage incisions or wounds?
Isotonic fluids- Normosol R; lactated ringers solution, isotonic saline
What should be added to the fluids for lavaging a contaminated or infected wound?
0.1-0.5% chlorhexidine
0.5% povidone iodine
Wounds: prefer 10-15 psi pressure