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26 Cards in this Set

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What is the TBW in males and females?
60% >> male 70kg
50-55% >> female
What are the two fluid compartments?
Intracellular: 2/3 of TBW

Extracellular: 1/3 of TBW
-intravascular
-interstitial
What are the recommended bolus doses?
Geriatrics- 250 cc
Adults- 500 cc
Adolescents- 250 cc
Infants- 20 cc
What type of fluids can you give via bolus dose?
Normal saline
Lactated Ringers
Blood
Albumin

30 min-2 hrs
What is the #1 cause of hyponatremia?
Dilutional
What are the contents of Normal Saline and Ringers Lactate?
NS- 154 Na, 154 Cl
Ringers- 130 Na, 109 Cl, 4k, 28 Lactate, 3 Calcium
Rapid correction of hyponatremia can cause?
Central Pontine Myelinolysis
What is central pontine myelinolysis?
A neurologic disease caused by severe damage of the myelin sheath of nerve cells in the brainstem, more precisely in the pons. Caused by rapid correction of hyponatremia.
What is the treatment of dilutional hyponatremia?
Water restriction
What are the symptoms of hyponatremia?
CNS disturbance
Lethargy
Fatigue
N/V
Convulsions
Coma
Overproduction of ADH is known as?
SIADH
Underproduction of ADH
Diabetes Insipidus
What are some causes of excessive urinary losses
Diuretics
Osmotic diuresis: Glucose, Mannitol, Angiographic Contrast Media
Def of ADH
What is the treatment of DKA?
NS- to lower blood osmolality
Insulin- forces glucose and K into cells
Replace electrolytes
What type of fluid do you give burn patients?
Ringers Lactate
What fluids are given to diabetics during surgery?
D5
NS

For non-diabetics give NS (it stays intravascular)
What is the #1 cause of volume depletion?
GI losses:

Vomiting
NG tube Sx
Diarrhea
How do you treat fluid depletion?
Treat the cause
Ringer's Lactate/NS
Replacemnt of acidic gastric contents
What is the fluid treatment of hyponatremia
Normal saline administered slowly
What fluid do you give to correct Third spacing?
Normal saline
What fluid should be avoided in the first 24 hrs following major surgery?
KCl because tissue trauma during surgery releases intracellular potassium
What fluid is given to correct severe vomiting or NG Sx losses?
Normal Saline or
Ringers Lactate with potassium
What fluids are given to treat severe diarrhea
For each liter of diarrheal fluid lost, give 1000 ml of 1/2 NS with 40 mEq KCL and 25 mEq Sodium Bicarb
How many days can IV fluids maintain a pt?
3-5 days because they don't contain adequate nutrients
In which pts must you have caution to avoid fluid overload?
Inpaired renal or cardiac function
What are the normal daily losses of water and electrolytes?
Water: 2000-2500 ml/day
Sodium: 75 mEq/day
Potassium: 40-60 mEq/day
Glucose: 100 Gm/day