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119 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is shock?
failure of the circulatory system to maintain adequate blood flow and O2 delivery to vital organs.
what do we mean when we say that an animal has hypovolemic shock?
when there is inadequate blood volume
what do we mean when we say that an animal has cardiogrnic shock?
hwne there is inadequate cardiac function
what do we mean when we say that an animal has distributive shock?
when there is inadequate vascular tone or peripheral resistance.
what is the "classic" cause of distributive shock?
sepsis and or endotoxemia
list five signs of hypovolemic/cardiogenic shock.
rapid repirations
reduced uring output
what clinical sign is commonly different for distributive shock compared to hypovolemic/cardiogenic shock?
memcranes become hyperemic
list the two main components of shock therapy
fluid and O2 therapy.
what category of drugs are often used to treat hypovolemic/cardiogenic shock (but not septic shock), even though their use is controversial?
how long does it take for a surgical incision to be strong enough to hold the wound edges together without sutures?
10 days
how much additional time does it take a wound to be at full strength after the incision is strong enough to hold the wound edges together?
2-4 weeks
what is meant by the term "first intention healing"?
healing a wound without infection or excessive granulation.
what is meant by the term "second intention healing"?
open healing of a wound that contains 2 granulated surfaces and some degree of suppuration
when should skin sutures be removed?
10-14 days after insertion
what should be noted about a skin incision at the time of suture removal?
date of removal and condition of incision.
what type of retractors (sharp-tipped or blunt) are most appropriate for use on muscle and skin?
sharp tipped so tissue does not slip.
why should unnecessary handling of skin be avoided during surgery?
to reduce possibility of contamination
what type of cutting method results in the least trauma and most rapid healing of skin?
with a scalpel
why is it important to preserve soft tissue attachment to bone when repairing fractures?
because blood supply from tissue is important to bone healing.
what is a potential complication that can arise when performing surgery on the hollow organs in the body?
contamination of surgical site from contents of organ.
describe the appropriate use of surgical sponges to achieve heamostasis.
pressure with cauze can stop low pressure bleeding from small vessels.
what complication will ocur if surgical sponges are left in the abdomen during a surgical procedure and how can you keep this from happening?
it can cause peritonitis and pleuritis, and you can stopo it by counting sponges before and after surgery.
why should alcohol be avoided when using electrocautery?
because alcohol can be flammable.
why should surgical glove be worn when using electrocautery?
to avoid shock.
what will happen to the patient of good contact between the patient and the ground plate is not achieved with a conductive gel or fluid when using electrocautery?
it can burn the patient
which type of electrocautery unit (monopolar or bipolar) requires a dry surgical field to function?
on what type of tissue would use of Gelfoam by appropriate?
tissues that tend to ooze, like the liver.
what are the two primary purposes of tissue lavage?
keep tissues soft and remove bacteria.
list three characteristics of all fluids that are routinely used for tissue lavage.
isotonic, physiological neutral and same pH as serum
what is the difference in route of passage of fluid in a passive drain versus and active drain?
passive allow fluid to pass through outside of train, active allows drainage to flow through the middle of the drain.
when should a drain normally be removed?
2-5 days
what should all animals with a drain in place wear?
why is the routine prophylactic use of antibiotics for all surgical procedures not recommended?
it contributes to the development of resistant strains of bacteria that are difficult to treat.
list five situations in which the routine prophylactic use of antibiotics in indicated.
1. patient is immunosuppressed
2. hollow viscus has entered surgical site
3. orthopedic implant is placed
4. long joint procedures
5. consequences of infection would be very severe.
what is the time frame in whcih antibiotics should be started pre-op when the antibiotics are for prophylactic purposes (not to treat an already exhisting infection)?
3+ hrs pre-op, and 6-24 hrs post
what is the most common cause of abscesses?
bite wound
what is the most common systemic clinical sign of abcesses?
where in the hoospital should surgery for an abcess be performed?
dirty surgical area or treatment area.
what instructions should be given toa client when discharging a routine abcess surgery?
how to clean the drain and what is normal or abnormal for healing.
how is further contamintation of the wound minimized when clipping a laceration for surgery?
because fur carries debris and bacteria, and it can irritate the healing skin.
what procedure should be performed to characterize a cutaneous mass prior to its removal?
is malignancy and metastasis more common with mammary neoplasia of dogs or cats?
describe the effect of Ovariohysterectomy on the incidence of mammary neoplasia in dogs
risk of neoplasia significantly increases as the animal gets older.
what should be done to screen for metastasis before a mastectomy is performed in dogs and cats?
pre-op chest and abdominal radiographs to check for metastasis in lungs and lymph nodes, because if present, doing mastectomy will be of no clinical use anymore.
what are the most frequent potential complications following radical mastectomy
what anatomical structures are removed during a feline onychectomy?
the entire nail and the 3rd phalanx of the paws
should a cats nails be trimmed as part of prepping the feet prior to performing a declaw?
where should a tourniquet be placed to minimize the possibility of damage to the radial nerve when performing a declaw?
distal to elbow
what particular precautions should be taken when utilizing a laser to perform a feline onychectomy?
use moitened gauze on the cats feet, instruments and surgens fingers to keep from burning.
what restriction should be in place on the life style of any cat on which declaq surgery has been performed?
do not put cat outside
describe typical post-op care for a cat on which a declaw surgery has been performed/
analgesic for at least 4-5 days, and use "yesterdays news" as litter intil paws heal, and keep bandages clean and dry
what combination of analgesics is frequently used post-op after feline onychectomy?
opioid and NSAIDs
what is the most common complication in the short-term after feline onychectomy?
bandages come off too soon and cause hemorrhage
what are the two most common complications in the long-term after feline onychectomy?
regrowth of nail due to incomplete removal of germinal layer, or lameness due to a cut pad.
at what age should tail docking and dewclaw removal in puppies be done?
3-5 days old
how do the anesthetic and analgesic protocols used when tail docking and dewclaw removal in puppies are performed differ from those used when these procedures are performed in adult dogs?
no anesthesia or analgesia for puppies, and adults are put under general anesthesia and analgesia use used.
what structures are removed during an ovariohysterectomy?
both ovaries and uterus
list three reasons why early ovariohysterectomy is recommended in dogs and cats.
decreased risk of mammary tumors, increased risk of complications if OHE done during heat cycles, and decreased pet overpopulation
what is the primary undesirable potential side effect that can occur in some dogs after ovariohysterectomy?
urinary incontinance
what two things should you check specifically on an animal that is being admitted for an ovariohysterectomy?
animal is female and has not had any other reproductive surgeries, and that the animal is not in heat.
what is the difference between an open and closed pyometra?
open has leaked into abdominal cavity and should be operated on immediately.
what is the mother at increased risk for as the neonates are removed during a C-section?
increased blood loss
what six things should the person receiving the neonates do for them during a C-section?
remove membranes from mouth and nose, tie umbilical cord 1cm from body, remove fluids from mouth and nose, doxapram and O2 if not breathing, dry and rub briskly, place in a warm area.
what must be taken into consideration regarding administration of systemic analgesics to a patient after C-section
should be low doses because it is transfered to the babies through the milk.
what instructions should be given to a client regarding bloody vaginal discharge from animal that has undergone a C-section?
Unless there is excessive bleeding, it is usually normal.
list three social behaviors that occur less commonly in dogs and cats that are neutered.
less aggressive
less urinary marking
less of a problem if they come in contact with female in heat
describe the difference in prepping of the scrotum for castration in dogs versus cats
you do not clip the hair of the scrotum in the dogs, while you remove all hair from the scrotum of the cat.
describe the difference in location of the surgical incision for castration in dogs versus cats.
dogs have a pre-scrotal incision, while cats have a scrotal incision.
whta two things should you check specifically on an animal that is being admitted for castration?
verify animal is male, and that both testicles are in scrotum.
what instructions should be given to a client upon discharge of a dog that has undergone a routine OHE?
return for skin suture removal, observe for licking, and restrict activity
what is a cystotomy?
incision into lumen of urinary bladder
what is the most common indication for a cystotomy?
remove cystic calculi
what should be placed pre-op in cats and female dogs, and intra-op in male dogs so that the surgical team can ascertain that all uroliths are removed?
urethral catheter
what instructions should be given to a client upon discharge of a dog that has undergone a routine cystotomy regarding the animal urination?
monitor closely for blood, and make sure animal is urinating
what is a perineal urethrostomy?
opening made in urethra in perineal area in male cats
what is the most common indication for performing a perineal urethrostomy?
cats with chronic or recurrent idiopathic LUTD (FUS) that repeatedly obstruct.
in what position should a cat be placed for a perineal urethrostomy surgery?
ventral recombancy
what must the surgical team remember to remove following perineal urethrostomy surgery?
the purse string suture in anus
what MUST be placed on a cat following perineal urethrostomy surgery?
what is the routine care of a surgical site following a perineal urethrostomy surgery?
leave area alone as much as possible.
define laparotomy
surgical incision into abdominal cavities
define gastrotomy
incision into stomach
define enterotomy
incision into intestine
define intestinal resection and anastomosis
portion of intestine removed and two remaining portions are joined together
what is the most common indication for gastrotomy or enterotomy in dogs and cats?
to remove foreign body or tumor or to obtain a biopsy
why is efficient endotracheal intubation and cuff inflation particulry important in most animals that are to undergo surgery of the GI tract?
to avoid aspiration if animal vomits.
what is different about instrument packs to be used for GI surgery compared to instrument packs used in routine elective surgeries?
there are extra instruments and some will be designated clean and dirty.
what is the most common complication following surgery of GI tract?
list for things that we can do to minimize likelihood of infection after GI tract surgery
pack off any intestine exposed outside, irrigate before closing, injectable antibiotics, and use abdominal drains.
why is intestinal resection and anastomosis performed?
when a section of intestine is damaged and can no longer function.
list three characteristics of devitalized intestine.
black green or gray color, lack of motility, not bleeding or doppler blood flow reading and no vital stain uptake
what is the expectation regarding vomiting post-op in an animal that has undergone GI surgery?
may occur 1-2 times without a problem, but repeated vomiting is a bad sign.
discuss appropriate post-op feeding of an animal that has undergone GI surgery.
begin as soon as animal has appetite (unless vomiting). with frequent, small amounts of highly digestible, bland food
define articular fracture
a fracture involving a joint surface
define comminuted fracture
bone fracture into a number of fragments
define compound fracture
one or more fragments have penetrated into soft tissue and through skin exposing to air.
define epiphyseal fracture
fracture of a growth plate
define green stick fracture
incomplete, does not penetrate both cortices
define oblique fracture
angle is between horizontal and verticle
define spiral fracture
fracture curves or winds around bone
define transverse fracture
right angle to long axis of bone
what serious complication can occur following repair of fracture be internal fixation?
which joint is most commonly luxated in dogs and cats?
what surfaces should be avoided when retracting tissues during surgery?
articular cartilage in joint
what instructions should be given to a client upon discharge of an animal that has undergone orthopedic surgery?
prevent thrashing, do passive range of motion exercises 2-3x/day, and keep bandages clean and dry
it is incumbent upon us ethically to provide effective control of pain in our patients. list five reasons why control of post-operative pain is medically advantageous as well.
increased cardiovascular function
increased appetite
speeds up wound healing
decreased risk of infection
decreased fead and anxiety
give three examples of procedures that typically result in irritating or mildly painful situations.
dental prophylaxis, IV, Urinary catheter.
give three examples of procedures that typically result in mildly to moderately painful situations.
castration, OHE, dental extraction
give three examples of procedures that typically result in moderately to severely painful situations.
fractures, mastectomy, declaws
give three examples of procedures that typically result in severely painful situations
limb amputation, ear ablation, thoroctomy
list five physiologic changes that may be observed in painful animals.
increased blood pressure
increased heart rate
increased respiratory rate
pale mucous membranes (prolonged CRT)
decreased tital volume
what type of opioids are appropriate for control of moderate to severe pain in animals? give 4 examples.
Morphine, Oxymorphone, hydromorphone, fentanyl
what type of opioids are appropriate for control of mild to moderate pain in animals? give 2 examples
butorphanol, buprenorphine
how long after fentanyl patch is applied does it take to achieve therapeutic blood levels in cats and dogs?
cats- 4-12 hours, dogs 12-24 hours
how long does fentanyl remain in therapeutic levels when using a transdermal patch in cats and dogs?
cats- 5 days
dogs- 3 days
why should fentanyl patches not be cut?
it interferes with the rate of release and it exposes people to the drug
what instructions should be given to a client upon discharge of an animal that is going home with a fentanyl patch in place?
bring animal in to have it removed and disposed of, and if it falls off at home, do not let children or pets play with it, and do not touch it if you are pregnant or breastfeeding. Then pick it up, fold it in half onto itself, and flush it down the toilet.
what is tramadol and what is its mechanism of action?
its an analgesic that is a mu Opioid binding drug
what are the three primary potential side effects associated with the use of NSAIDs
GI ulceration, renal toxicity and bleeding