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199 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
the cultural developments in Europe from the 14th to 16th centuries
the renaissance
the first manifestations of the renaissance were ____
florentine
rinasita means-
rebirth
what is the most stable Italian-state?
venice
what country controlled the southern half peninsula of italy?
spain
what was slowly losing influence in society as they lost control over their own members?
guilds
what had become the high road to wealth?
individual and joint stock ventures
what began to disappear in the west?
serfdom
who could only afford the luxury of unbridled individualism?
the greatest scholars and artists
the renaissance laid the basis for mass national what?
literacy and secular culture
what was so persuasive that new schools sprang up exemplifying a philosophy of education?
the ideal of the "renaissance man"
before the renaissance,what was one of the greatest italian towns?
milan
what were the three classes of political organization?
1. nobles
2. nights and squires
3. plebians
early in the 14th century the ___ embarked on the policy of territorial aggression
visconti
the great period of the visconti began in______
1354
What is Lorenzo Vallas most famous accomplishment?
His most famous textual project is when he proved that the Donation of Constantine was a fake.
In the area of moral philosiphy , what was Vallas most influential work?
On the True Good
What was civic humanism?
Humanism in which education was based on plitical science and political action.
What was one of the main goals of the Renaissance humanist?
to find and discover ancient texts and read them
Who was Poggio Bracciolini?
He discovered several ancient texts such as Quintilian's The Education of an Orator and the poem of Cucretius On the Nature of Things.
What did the spreading knowledge of the Greek language simulated a Greek search for what?
books and manuscripts
How did the printing press affect classic literature?
the printing press allowed large quantities of texts to be distriputed
Besides books, what ways were scholars able to learn about the past?
Through coins, inscriptions, monuments, and physical remains of the ancient world
Who was Coluccio Salutati?
One of the first humanist chancellor of Florentine. He was the center of the humanistic circle in Florence and had considerable influence over many of the leading intellectuals of the time.
What form of education did Valla value most?
the study of language, especially rhetoric and the study of Latin
What did the humanists do regarding history?
they made great contributions to the writing of history in the modern sense.
Who did the Humanists look at as models?
the ancient historians of the greek and roman era.
What did Leonardo da vinci leave behind?
less than 20 paintings,no statue, machine or book, but more than 5000 pages of notes.
Who were leonardo's contemporaries?
Martin luther and Colombus.
what was an interesting fact about italy?
that italy was a collection of papal states rather than a unififed nation, and thier rulers were more inclined to fight each other than band together against larger countries like france and spain.
How were many political problems solved in italy?
by killing the person who was the cause of the problem.
Who was the father of Lucrezia Borgia?
Cardinal Rodrigo Borgia, later known as Pope Alexander VI.
How old was she when she was first affected by her father's brother's political ambitions polotics?
she was no more than 11.
who was Lucrezia eventually maried to? and how old were the two of them
Giovanni Sforza, he was 27 and she was 13
how old was she when her father planned to have the marrige annulled?
she was 17
how long was lucrezia out of her first marrige before she got pregnant? what was her son's name
six months, his name was Giovanni
what was her second husbands name?
Alfonso of aragon
When was he murdered?
july 15, 1500
who would become her third husband?
Alfonso d'Este
how many children did she have with alfonso? how many survived into adulthood?
she had five children, and only two survived.
what year did she die? how old was she
she died on June 24, 1519 at the age of 39.
why was she married and unmarried so often?
because of the political mechanations of her father and brother?
who was noted for the violence of his temper, worked hard at the business of gov., and issued game laws of inhuman severity?
bernab
bernab's conflict w/ the papacy over possession of the city of Bolgna meant that he lived under ____
excommunication
florence would have surely fallen had gian galeazzo himself not
become sick and died in the same year
who ruled milan successfully with good relationships with frnace and florence until his death?
francesco sforza
Why wasn't Episcopalianism challenged during Elizabeth's reign?
Because the Anglican Church was firmly under state controlthere were still many catholics in
why did surface tensions remain even after religion faded away as a divisive issue in england?
becausse there were still a great many catholics in england who stubbornly resisted the domination of the anglican church
what does heretic mean
unworthy of reigning as a monarch
Wgeb was the Cateau-Cambresis?
1559. the treaty disengaged france and spain from their debilitating war.
What kind of church was fromed in august 1560 after scotland formally broke with rome?
presbyterian and it was architected by John Knox
When did the massacre at Vasy in France take place?
In march 1552
Who drove out the english of le havre in 1563?
a coalition of huguenots and catholics
where did the technoloy of the printing press spread to?
It spread to Mainz, Strasbourg, up and down the Rhine Valley to Swiss cities, Italy, and Venice.
By 1600, how many different books or editions were printed?
Over 200,000 books and averaged about 1000 coopies each.
How did printers diverse their products?
they alternated large fancy works with small pamphelts, forms, and posters which would sell quickly and give them a quick return.
How were printers trained?
They were trained through an apprenticeship program in the way that artisans were.
In addition to books what did printers produce?
They produced much smaller, cheaper booklets, both religious and secular.
Who inveneted almanacs?
Benjamin Frankiln
What are almanacs?
They are small books with witty sayings, moral maxims, humor, horoscopes and other astrological predictions, long-term weather forecasts, and agricultural advice.
what did almanacs provide printers and publishers?
almanacs provided them with a quick return on their investments, and allowed them also to print fancier and longer things, which sold more slowly and were much more expensive to produce.
What is "The Scientific Revolution? meant to describe?
It is meant to describe the great outburst in activity in the investigation of the physical nature that took place in the 16th,17th, and 18th centuries.
what has modern technology revolutionized?
It has revolutionized communication and transportaion and increased beyond calculation the power and wealth avaliable to society and those whi control and experience its benefits.
what can the scientific view of things rest on?
It may rest on unproved and improvable assumption.
According to modern science, when is explanation or s fact of nature acceptable?
It is acceptable only unless it has taken into accoount all of the observed data.
Stars that circle the earth daily and manke an annual motion are what type of star?
Fixed star
What are the four earthly elements?
Fire, air, water and earth
According to Astronomy, what is the escentric devise?
It is a device that meant that the center of a planet's orbit was located at some distance from the earth.
What was the epicycle?
It was a circle which the planet, in its motion, described around the larger circle which in turn went around the earth.
How many motions does a planet have?
two
what was copernicus' hypothesis?
That the earth was actually in motion.
Who proposed the theory that the earth is one of the planets revolving around the sun?
Copernicus
what did Copernicus' theory provide?
It provided a simpler and more symmetrical mathematical way of explaining the observed facts.
what did the astronomer Tycho Brahe believe?
He believed that no change could take place in the region of the stars.
what was Kelper's first law?
That the planets, in their revolutions about the sun, describe ellipses rather than circles.
what was Kelper's second law?
States that the radius vector drawn from the sun to a planet descirbes equal areas in equal periods of time.
what was Kelper's third law?
States that the squares of the periodic times of the planets are proportional to the cubes of their mean distances from the sun.
Who helped make it clear that there were not different kinds of motion for different kinds of beings?
Newton and Galileo
what country had close relations with the emperor at Constantinople?
venice
who supplied italy, france, and germany with the goods of the east and became rich and powerful in the process?
venetian merchants
the chief activity of venice that brought relationships was what?
trade
who minted the gold coin, the ducat, which was valued everywhere for its sound, reliable worth?
venice
who took constantinople in 1453?
the turks
who came to be regarded as a great threat to to the peace and freedom of italy?
venice
what was home to the men of talents and genius?
florence
what was a general revival of trade and economic life?
gold coins
popolo means-
people
poplo grasso means-
fat people
popolo minuto means-
little people
who were forbdden to form guilds?
the workers (especially those employed by the wool manufacturers)
since the second half of the 13th century, popes have been calling in members of the royal family to defend papal interests in italy
french
in about 1338, who had reached the peak of prosperity?
florence
what was one of the largest cities in europe?
florence
Who did Mary marry in 1565?
Lord Darnley
When was James VI born and who were his parents?
Mary & Lord Darnley
During Charles V's reign, who initiated the protestant reformation
Martin Luther
What two countries fought over Italy in 1521 and who finally won in 1525?
Spanish and French
Spanish won
Who was Suleiman I
sultan of the Ottoman Empire starting from 1520
What was Charles crowned at Bologna in 1530 by Pope Clement VII?
Holy Roman Empire
In 1547 who did Charles V and his soldiers win against?
The forces of the german protestant princes
What did Charles V do in 1556?
he abdicated the throne and retired to a monastery in Spain
Who introduced papermaking to Europe?
SPanish Muslims
What was a very important invention of the REformation?
printing
Who was Desiderius Erasmus?
A dutch humanist born in Rotterdam
Who wrote Utopia?
Sir Thomas More
Who was Francois Rabelais?
one of the best known of the french humanists who wrote Gargantua and Pantagruel
Who was Ulrich von Hutten?
German huminist who supported religious reform and german nationalist feelings
Who was Michel de Montaigne
northern humanist who developed the essay
The historians saw the decline of Rome _______ as the essential precondition to the rise of modern Italy
Rome
The humanists historians took a step in the direction of historical writing by rejecting what force?
the supernatural force
How did humanists write history?
The humanists wrote history on the human plane, seeking the causes and meanin of events in human motives and conditions
Florentine humanists discovered the connection between the state of politics and ____________
cultural achievment
What did Flavio Biondo write?
The history of Italy after the fall of the Roman Empire.
What type of education did the humanists create?
liberal education
According to Roman standards, what was a good education?
having the ability to speak well, knowledge of the history of the Greeks, and a leader
What are the liberal studies?
history, moral philosophy, and eloquence, literature, grammar, logic, rhetoric, poetry, music, aritmetic, astronomy, and geometry
According to Vergerio, education of a person should be adapted to _______________.
His specific skills
What was Castiglione's greates work?
The Courtier
What was The Courtier about?
It explains the qualaties needed to be a good courtier.
Who was Cola de Rienzo
Roman man who took control of Rome and liberated Rome. He became leader and began to plan an Italian Federation. But, he was overthrown.
What was Martin V's main goal as pope?
To rebuild Rome, restore order, and develp the temporal power of the papacy.
How does this Martin V's goal affect christianity?
The popes began looking first of all at the interests of their state in Italy rather than of the church as a whole.
Who was pope Nicholas V?
He was the first humanist pope and the real founder of the Vatican library. He brought distinguished scholars and artists to Rome.
when were the theory's of Copernicus accepted?
By he end of the 18th century
how did artists represent the human body accurately?
By makind careful anatomical studies, sometimes by the means of the dissection of corpses.
whao was the first to make accurate drawings of the human embryo?
Leonardo di Vinci
What did Vasalius write?
He wrote De fabrica which was a complete description of the human body, that were illustrated by woodcuts and had no errors.
when was the Renaissance?
From 1350-1530 in Italy, and from about 1500-1600 in Northern Europe.
During the Renaissance, what percent of the people made up peasantry?
About 90% of the people.
what did the new cultural style involve?
It involved the arts, literature, and ethical and political thought
what happened in Europe around 1347-1348?
The Black Death it Europe and it was the first stirke of bubonic plague.
what was the death toll in Europe from The Black Death?
22 to 28 million people died from a population of about 73 to 74 milion people.
what was the dominate theme in the art of the period of the Renaissance?
Death and new religious movements
what was some social and econmic consequences because of the Black Death?
trade and industry were disrupted, family life was strained, and civility was frayed.
what were the ideals of the civic humanists aimed at during the Renaissance period?
urben eliete
florence and who were at war in the War of the Eight Saints?
the pope
what plague killed more than 50,000 florentines?
the black death
who was the greatest architect of the time?
brunelleschi
who helped sforza take over the gov. of milan?
cosimo de' medici
whose death brought peace to italy?
sultan muhammad ll
who literally created the european renaissance and paved the way for the modern secular world
the humanists
Who wrote Don Quixote?
Miguel De Cevantes
What was Secular Drama?
Plays without religious involvement
What types of plays did Shakespeare write?
comedies, histories, tragedies, romances.
What was the mid-to-late 15th century called?
The age of discovery
Why did Europeans take on the Ocean sea?
curiosity, explanation of religions, and wanting of luxuries.
Who was Aenaeas Sylvius?
Pope Pius II. He condemed conciliarism, served at the court of the Holy Roman Empire, helped bring humanism to Germany, wrote an extensive history of his times, and workede for more crusades.
Who was pope Sixtus IV?
He worked to make the Papal states a strong temporal power. He became involved in the diplomatic intrigues and conflicts among the Italian cities.
Who was pope Alexander VI most devoted to?
His son Ceasare and daughter Lucrezia.
What was Alexander VI like?
He became synonomous with with the moral degradation of the Renaissance papacy.
What did Alexander VI accomplish?
He restored order in Rome.
Who was Cesare?
The son of Alexander VI, he built up a state of his own in central Italy with the help of his father.
Who was Machiavelli?
He wrote The Prince in which he examined Ceasre and wrote about his characteristics.
umanista means-
humanist
humanist
a proffessional group of teachers whose subject matter consisted of those areas that were called studia humanitatis
when did humanism begin?
in the middle ages in europe
who was the founding figure of humanism?
petrarch
the most famous representative of the latter group was who?
coluccio
what did the educational program the humanists fostered in the Renaissance emphasis on?
It emphasised on the liberal arts, Latin and rhetoric
How were the households in Tuscany like in the beginning of the 15th century?
They lived in exended houshold which meant that they lived with an extended family.
How did family play a decisive role?
It played a decisive role in shaping the lives of individuals, regulating the births, marriages, and economic activities of its members.
what were the primary patrons of rtistic works?
Patrician families, institutions, guilds, and confraternities.
in the 15th century? who controlled most of the political appointments and policies of the republic?
The Medici
Who competed for the most accomplished artists and humanists?
Popes and priests
What was the period where Europe participated in a sustanied demographic and econmic recovery?
It is known as "Long sixteenth century"
what years did the crisis of the 14th century last?
From 1300 to 1450
Why was Ceasre unable to influence the papal election?
becaue he was critically ill
What do historains think was Ceasre's main goal?
to dominate all Italy
Who was Julius II?
the pople that succeeded Alexander II. His main goal was to break the power of Ceasre and to add Ceasre's conquest to the papal states.
He was known as the warrior pope.
How did Juilius II influence art in Rome?
He was a great patron of the arts, emplying both Michelangelo and Raphael and making Rome the cultural capital of Italy.
Who was Leo X?
succesor to Juilus II; he was a patron of the arts and spent much of the Church's money on art and decorations. he did not care about spiritual affairs, and did not realize the importance of Martin Luther.
Who was ADrian VI?
He was the pope after Leo X. He was concerned about religous affairs and wanted reforms. He was not a patron of the arts and was mocked for it.
What was the sack of Rome?
the nunpaid and mutinous soldeiers of Charles V sacked Rome and caused untold destruction and death.
Why did the sack of Rome occur?
Because Pope Clement VII commited himself to France just as Charles V was taking control of Italy.
Who was Leonardo Da Vinci first apprenticed to?
Andrea del Verrochio.
What were some of Da Vinci's inventions?
light and transportable bridges, rudimentary water pumps, mortars to fling stones, covered chariots, catapalts
Why did Da Vinci leave Florence?
Because Florence was backward looking and was similar to Rome and Greece. Da Vinci liked the new and the innovative.
What did Da Vinci want to do?
observe, discover and invent
What was one weird fact about Da Vinci?
He wrote backwards.
What was Thomisim?
The eclectic philosiphy of St. Thomas Aquinas
What was aquinas' theory on knowledge?
that knowledge was not a realization of divine truth, but rather a sober statement of how man viewed the worldl.
what are the two directions in which one can follow Aquinas' work
1.Man can know of thw world only that which he learns from his experience on the material world.
2.The world is intelligeable to rational man. whatever exists, can be understood. Whatever exists as a set of causes. These causes are known only through man's experience and his reflection upon that expierence
who invented the printing press
johannes gutenberg
when was christopher colombus' first voyage?
august 3, 1492 on the santa maria
what were the interests of the spanish crown?
to exend spain's power, christianity, and profit
What were some reasons why cortes was able to kill offthe aztecs
disease and aritillary inventions
Who accepted colombus to be a patron for his voyages?
ferdinand v and isabella I
who invented the compass
the arab world in the 12th century
Who came to prince henry's court to become shipbuilders, sailors, mapmakers, astronemers, and instrument makers?
italians, jews, muslims, germans, scandinavians, and arabs
were the sailors from prince henry's court successful in going around africa to india?
no, but they were successful in advancing down the west african coast where they opened rich trade in gold and slaves.
Was Aquinas' satisfiedwith simply knowing WHAT was in the world around him?
No he wanted to know why things in his environment were there
What was the evidence that the Christian church was losing power?
the rise of several prodesatant sects
What was another clash in the 12th-13th centuries?
a clash between the religious and intellectual philosophies.
Why was Thomas Aquinas made a saint?
because he bridged the gap between faith and reason.
According to Dante and Aquinas, how many roads to knowledge are there? how many did most people believe there to be?
according to aquinas and dante there were 2, according to common belief there was only one
According to Dante why were the people leaving christianity?
because the church was no longer serving the spiritual needs of the flock?
What did Marslio Ficino say was at the center of the universe?
the human soul
What did Ficino believe was he ultimate goal of human life?
to be reunited with god, at least in an intellectual sense
if there was such a thing as a "manifesto" of the italian rennissance what would it be?
Giovanni Pico della Mirandola's "oration on the dignit of man"