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27 Cards in this Set

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Organic Molecules contain what element?
C Carbon
How many bonds does C form?
4
Organic Molecules
Notable
* large molecules ... macromolecules
* polymers of small molecules
Classes of Organic Molecule
4 Classes:
Carbohydrates
Lipids
Proteins
Nucleic Acids
Carbohydrates
Notable
* CHO
* 1% of body by weight
* most important in energy production in cells
* polar
* soluble in water
* simplest ... monosaccharides (pentoses/hexoses)
* complex ... disaccharides/polysaccharides
Lipids
Notable
* CHO (some N or P)
* 15% of body by weight
* nonpolar (covalently bonded) insoluble in water
Name the SUBCLASSES of LIPIDS
4 subclasses
1. fatty acids
2. triacylglycerols (triglycerides)
3. phospholipids
4. steroids
Fatty Acids
Notable
* COOH (acid) group at one end
* even number C
* all C single bonded ... saturated
* some double bonds ... unsaturated
* animal fats - mostly saturated fatty acids
* vegetable fats - mroe unsaturated fatty acids
triacylglycerols
* most lipids
* fats and oils
* glycerol/3 fatty acids
Phospholipids
* 3rd OH- group on glycerol linked to PO4 (not fatty acids)
* small polar / or ionized N containing molecule usually attached to PO4
* amphipathic
Steroids
* 4 interconnected rings of C
* NOT water soluble
* cholesterol and steroid hormones
Proteins are what percentage of body by weight?
17%
How many different amino acids are in the body?
20
Proteins:
notable
* HONC (may include P, Fe, Mg, Cu, S)
* large molecules
* subunits ... amino acids (COOH/NH2)
* amino acids linked by PEPTIDE BONDS form peptides and polypeptides
* a peptide bond LINKS COOH (carboxyl) group from one amino acid TO NH2 (amino) group of another amino acid (and water is split off).
* a peptide bond is a POLAR COVALENT BOND
How many amino acids?

PEPTIDE
2-9
How many amino acids?

POLYPEPTIDE
10-50
How many amino acids?

PROTEIN
more than 50 amino acids
Shape (conformation) of a protein:
* 3d shape flexible/bends
* amino acids rotate around their bonds
* important characteristic for functioning
Define Primary structure
order (# and specific amino acid) of amino acids
Define Secondary structure
spatial arrangemet of amino acids in chain (determined by angle of bonds between amino acids)
Define Tertiary structure
3D shape
Define Quaternary structure
more than one polypeptide chain
Factors which determine conformation:
1. H bonds between chain and surrounding water (alpha helix)
2. Ionic bonds between polar and ionized regions along polypeptide chain
3. Weak attraction between nonpolar (hydrophobic) regions near each other (van der Waals forces)
4. Covalent bonds linking side chains of 2 amino acids
Nucleic Acids
* 2% of body by weight
* store, express, transmit genetic information
* 2 classes:
- Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
- Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
nucleus
double helix
deoxyribose sugar
store genetic information
bases: A/T, C/G
nucleotide
Ribonucleic Acid (RNA)
cytoplasm
single chain
ribose sugar
protein synthesis
bases: A/U, C/G
Nucleic Acid Subunit:
* NUCLEOTIDE (phosphate, sugar, a base)
- 4 Bases:
Purines (2 rings) adenine, guanine
Pyrimidines (1 ring) cytosine, thymine, uracil (only RNA)
* Bases pair: purine/pyrimidine
* SPECIFIC PAIRING:
A-T (2 H bonds)
C-G (3 H bonds)