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187 Cards in this Set

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Circulatory System
HEART:
What is it?
hollow, muscular organ
Circulatory System
HEART:
What does it do?
pumps blood through blood vessels
Circulatory System
HEART:
Where is it?
in the thoracic cavity between the pleural cavities which surround the lungs
Circulatory System
HEART:
enclosed by ...
pericardial sac
(double layered)
Pericardial Sac:
Name the layers
* visceral pericardium (epicardium)
* parietal pericardium
What is another name for VISCERAL PERICARDIUM?
epicardium
Visceral Pericardium:
* aka epicardium
* inner layer of Pericardial sac
* mesothelium
* simple squamous epithelium over areolar connective tissue
Parietal Pericardium:
* outer layer of Pericardial sac
2 portions:
- fibrous portion
fibrous connective tissue
(outer/anchors)
- serous portion
mesothelium
(inner/continuous with epicardium)
Pericardial cavity
* potential space
* between serous portion/epicardium)
* contains pericardial fluid
Name the layers in the
WALL OF THE HEART
and their histology
1. Epicardium (aka visceral pericardium)
- mesothelium
2. Myocardium
- cardiac muscle
3. Endocardium
- simple squamous epithelium
Name the
CHAMBERS OF THE HEART
2 atria
right/left
interatrial septum between
2 ventricles
right/left
interventricular septum between
What is "AV valves" short for?
Atrioventricular valves
What do AV valves do?
prevent backflow into atria
Where are AV valves?
betwen atria and ventricles
Name the AV valves:
tricuspid valve
bicuspid valve
What is another name for the bicuspid valve?
the mitral valve
Where is the
TRICUSPID VALVE located?
between the right atrium and right ventricle
Where is the
BICUSPID VALVE located?
between the left atrium and left ventricle
define
CHORDAE TENDINEAE
fibrous cords that brace the AV valves in the heart, stabilizing their position and preventing backflow during ventricular systole
define
PAPILLARY MUSCLES
Cone-shaped muscular projections of the inner ventricular surface. the CHORDAE TENDINEAE arise from these muscles.
Name the two main types of heart valves:
AV valves and
Semilunar valves
What do the SEMILUNAR VALVES do?
prevent backflow into ventricles
Where are the SEMILUNAR VALVES in general?
between arteries that leave the heart and the ventricles
Name the
SEMILUNAR VALVES:
aortic semilunar valve
and
pulmonary semilunar valve
Where is the
AORTIC SEMILUNAR VALVE located?
at the entrance into the AORTA
Where is the
PULMONARY SEMILUNAR VALVE located?
at the entrance into the PULMONARY ARTERY
What is the
CARDIAC CYCLE?
repeating pattern of contraction/relaxation of the heart

SYSTOLE - contraction
DIASTOLE - relaxation
The heart beats approximately
72x/min
What are the STEPS IN THE CARDIAC CYCLE?
1. Blood returning to heart flows into atria & through open AV valves into relaxed ventricles.
2. Atria contract squeezing small amount more of blood into ventricles.
3. Ventricles contract closing AV valves (lubb)
4. Blood forces SL valves open
5. Blood flows into aorta/pulmonary trunk
6. Ventricles relax SL valves close (dupp)
7. Blood flows into atria
Where does SPONTANEOUS ELECTRICAL ACTIVITY OF THE HEART begin?
in a small area of the heart called the
SINOATRIAL NODE (SA Node)
Describe the STATE of the SA NODE cells
cells of SA node are never in a resting state
continuously depolarizing/repolarizing
Impulses which originate in SA Node ...
spread through the heart by SPECIALIZED CARDIAC CONDUCTING CELLS (CONDUCTIVE SYSTEM).
What are the COMPONENTS of the CONDUCTIVE SYSTEM OF THE HEART?
1. Sinoatrial node
(SA node)
2. Atrioventricular node
(AV node)
3. Atrioventricular bundle
(Bundle of His)
4. Bundle branches
5. Purkinje fibers
Where is the SINOATRIAL NODE (SA NODE) located?
right atrium/near entrance of superior vena cava
Where is the ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODE (AV NODE) located?
lower part of the interatrial septum
Where is the ATRIOVENTRICULAR BUNDLE (BUNDLE OF HIS) located?
top part of the interventricular septum
Where are the BUNDLE BRANCHES located?
run through the interventricular septum
Where are the PURKINJE FIBERS located?
through the walls of the ventricles
Heart Rate
controlled by ...
SYMPATHETIC (cardiac accelerator)
* medulla to SA node
- increase rate
PARASYMPATHETIC (vagus)
* medulla to SA/AV nodes
- decrease rate
BLOOD Functions
1. transporting
2. maintaining homeostasis (buffers)
3. protection
4. help regulate body temperature
5. help regulate of body fluids
BLOOD COMPOSITION:
* Plasma (55%)
- 90% water
- 10% solutes (ions, hormones, plasma proteins, etc.)

* Formed elements (45%)
- blood cells
define
HEMOPOIESIS
formation of blood cells
define
ERYTHROPOIESIS
Red blood cell formation.
define
LEUKOPOIESIS
White blood cell formation.
Where does HEMOPOIESIS occur PRENATALLY?
in yolk sac, liver, spleen, red marrow, thymus and lymph nodes
Where does HEMOPOIESIS occur AFTER BIRTH?
myeloid tissue (red marrow) in long bones, ribs, sternum, bodies of vertebra and parts of skull
ERYTHROCYTES (RBC)
physical appearance:
* biconcave discs
* lack nucleus/mitochondria (when mature)
ERYTHROCYTES (RBC)
quantities
* most numerous blood cell
* Normal count:
male adult: 5.4 million per cubic mm
female adult 4.8 million per cubic mm
* 260,000,000 RBC in a drop of blood
ERYTHROCYTES (RBC)
what do they do?
* carry hemoglobin to which oxygen is bound
ERYTHROCYTES (RBC)
life span and death?
* life span of 120 days
* destroyed in liver and spleen by macrophages
How many molecules of hemoglobin are in a RBC?
300,000,000 molecules of Hb in a RBC
Describe the MECHANISM for ERYTHROPOIESIS to occur:
HYPOXIA --> kidney/liver cells --> renal erythropoietic factor --> plasma globulin --> ERYTHROPOIETIN --> bone marrow --> RBC
Leucocytes are also known as ...
White Blood Cells, or WBCs
What is a normal count for leucocytes?
Normal count adult male/female (6,000 - 9,000/cubic mm)
How are Leucocytes classified?
Classified according to STAINED APPERANCE:
* Granular leucocytes
* Agranular leukocytes
Why are Granular leucocytes named this way?
Because you can see granules in the cytoplasm with staining.
Why are Agranular leucocytes named this way?
Because you see NO granules in the cytoplasm with staining.
What is the life span of Granular Leukocytes?
12 hrs - 3 days
Name the Granular leucocytes:
Neutrophils
Eosinophils
Basophils
Granular Leucocytes:

NEUTROPHILS
(60-70%) most numerous
lobed nucleus/pale purple/diapedesis
granules are lysosomal enzymes/phagocytes
define
DIAPEDESIS
Movement of white blood cells through the walls of blood vessels by migration between adjacent endothelial cells.
Granular Leucocytes:

EOSINOPHILS
(2-4%)
red staining granules/digestive enzymes
lobed nucleus
phagocytize antigen-antibody complexes
increase during allergic/parasitic reactions
Granular Leucocytes:

BASOPHILS
(0.5 - 1%)
blue staining granules of histamine & heparin
lobed nucleus
mediate inflammatory response
Name the Agranular leucocytes:
Monocytes
Lymphocytes
Agranular Leucocytes:

MONOCYTES
(2-8%)
largest WBC (biggest in size)
large, indented nucleus
diapedesis
become free macrophages
phagocytize dead/injured
Agranular Leucocytes:

LYMPHOCYTES
(20-30%)
2nd most abundant WBC
small cell (smallest WBC)/large nucleus
most in lymphoid tissue
function for immunitiy
T and B lymphocytes
What is the life span of Agranular leucocytes?
100-300 days
What is another name for Platelets?
thrombocytes
What is a normal count of PLATELETS in an adult?
350,000 / cubic mm
What is the life span of a PLATELET?
10-12 days
What are PLATELETS physical composition?
* fragments of megakaryocytes also from marrow
* lack nuclei
* many granules
What is the function of platelets?
function in blood clotting to activate clotting factors
Blood vessels form ...
a tubular network for blood to flow from heart thoughout body and back to heart
How many layers are there in blood vessel walls?
three
Name the layers of blood vessel walls
Tunica externa
tunica media
tunica interna
What is another name for TUNICA EXTERNA?
adventia
What is another name for TUNICA INTERNA?
endothelium
Define TUNICA EXTERNA
aka adventia
outermost
areolar connective tissue with elastic/collagen fibers
Define TUNICA MEDIA
middle
circular smooth muscle and elastic fibers
Define TUNICA INTERNA
aka endothelium
lining
simple squamous epithelium with areolar connective tissue and a basement membrane
(continuous with endocardium)
Name the Types of Vessels
Large arteries
Small arteries
Arterioles
Capillaries
Venules
Veins
Define LARGE ARTERIES
aka elastic
smooth muscle contains many elastic fibers
Define SMALL ARTERIES
aka muscular
thicker tunica media
Define ARTERIOLES
poorly defined tunica externa
smooth musccle relatively thick
(primary regulators of blood pressure)
Define CAPILLARIES
single layer of endothelial cells
(simple squamous epithelium)
Define VENULES
lacks tunica media
Define VEINS
tunics thin/some contain valves
Blood Flow:
Name the 2 circuits
Systemic circulation
Pulmonary circulation
What is the purpose of
SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION?
for delivery/removal (o2, CO2, nutrients, wastes) between blood and cells
What is the purpose of
PULMONARY CIRCULATION?
For exchange of O2 and CO2 between air and blood
What is the route for
SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION?
Heart -> Aorta -> Arteries -> Arterioles ->
Capillaries ->
Venules -> Veins -> Vena Cavae -> Heart
What is the route for PULMONARY CIRCULATION?
Heart -> right ventricle -> pulmonary trunk -> R & L pulmonary arteries -> arterioles -> capillaries of lungs -> pulmonary venules -> pulmonary veins -> left atrium -> Heart
HEPATIC PORTAL CIRCULATION
Veins drain blood from ...
the intestines, pancreas, spllen, and stomach into capillaries (sinusoids) of the liver before returning to the heart
HEPATIC PORTAL CIRCULATION
Absorbed ...
products of digestion and harmful toxins pass first through liver before entering the general circulation
HEPATIC PORTAL CIRCULATION
Blood passes thru...
2 capillary beds before returning to the heart
How many portal systems are there in the human body?
two
Name the portal systems of the human body
hepatic portal
hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal
Flow from
HEPATIC PORTAL VEIN to
HEART
hepatic portal vein ->
capillaries of liver (sinusoids) ->
hepatic veins ->
inferior vena cava ->
right atrium of heart
Functions of the
LYMPHATIC SYSTEM
* Immunity
* Transport fluid
* Absorption of fats
Notable RE
LYMPHATIC SYSTEM
* Related to circulatory system
* No heart pumping
* Lymph capillaries begin as blind tubes
* Lymph vessels contain valves
* Lymph contains many of the same components (water, electrolytes, some plasma proteins) as plasma or interstitial fluid
Lymphatic Organs:
Lymph Nodes
Spleen
Thymus
Tonsils
Lymph Nodes
physical description
small, round organs of lymphatic tissue in chains along lymph vessels throughout body
Lymph Nodes
large group location
large groups in axillae, groin, neck
Lymph Nodes
Hystology
lymphoid tissue is modified areolar connective tissue containing lymphocytes/macrophages and encapsulated
As lymph flows through nodes ...
lymphocytes are added/removed
bacteria trapped/destroyed by macrophages
Spleen notable
* largest mass of lymphatic tissue in body
* nonvital in adult
* surrounded by fibrous capsule
* trabeculae divide into compartments
Spleen location
located posterior/lateral to stomach/inferior to diaphragm
Spleen
functions
1. phagocytosis
2. store iron
3. initiation of immune response to antigens
Spleen
tissue in compartments
2 types of tissue in compartments:
White pulp - lymphoid tissue
Red pulp - RBCs
Thymus
description and location
bilobed mass in mediastinum, behind manubrium
Thymus
size
Increases in size during childhood then regresses (involutes) after puberty
Thymus
* capsule/lobules/lymphocytes
* maturation T lymphocytes
* secretes several hormones together called thymosin
(stimulates production of T lymphocytes)
What are TONSILS?
small masses of lymphatic tissue embedded in mucous membranes of oral/pharyngeal cavities
What do TONSILS do?
destroy pathogens that enter pharynx via air or food
Name the pairs of tonsils
Palatine tonsils
Pharyngeal tonsils
Lingual tonsils
Palatine tonsils
"tonsils"
largest
posterior/lateral walls of oropharynx
Pharyngeal tonsils
adenoids
posterior wall of nasopharynx
Lingual tonsils
base of tongue
posterior/dorsal surface of tongue
Lymph vessels form ...
one-way transport system to return fluid to venous blood
Name the lymph vessels
lymph capillaries
collecting ducts
right lympahtic duct
thoracic duct
lymph capillaries
* smallest lymph vessels
* blind capillaries
* when interstitial fluid enters becomes LYMPH
* LACTEALS
LACTEALS
specialized lymph capillaries in small intestine
collecting ducts
* larger lymph vessels
* formed by capillaries joining
right lymphatic duct
* 2nd largest lymph vessel in body
* drains right arm, right shoulder, and right side of the head
* joins venous circulation where right subclavian/int jugular veins join
thoracic duct
* largest lymph vessel in body
* drains whole body except (right arm/right shoulder/right side of head)
* joins venous circulation where left subclavian/int jugular veins join
Name the disorders of the circulatory system
Atherosclerosis
Myocardial infarction
Ischemic heart disease
Angina pectoris
Hypertension
Anemia
Leukemia
Leukopenia
Leucocytosis
Polycythemia
Varicose Veins
Define
ATHEROSCLEROSIS
aka ARTERIOSCLEROSIS
plaques (atheromas) clog vessels
Define
MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION
aka HEART ATTACK
branch of coronary artery blocked
Define
ISCHEMIC HEART DISEASE
tissue lacks O2 due to reduced blood flow
Define
ANGINA PECTORIS
pain resulting from ischemia
Define
HYPERTENSION
blood pressure in excess of normal range (120/80 mmHg)
Define
ANEMIA
an abnormally low Hb concentration and/or RBC count
Define
LEUKEMIA
abnormally large number of immature WBCs in blood
Define
LEUKOPENIA
fewer than normal WBCs in blood
Define
LEUCOCYTOSIS
abnormally large number of WBCs in blood
Define
POLYCYTHEMIA
abnormally large number of RBCs in blood
Define
VARICOSE VEINS
weakened, stretched, swollen
Functions of the
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
* gas exchange
* sound production
* olfaction
* air filtration
* elimination of wastes
External respiration
lungs
environment/blood
Internal respiration
tissues
blood/cells
Respiratory Sytem
Name the structures
Nose
Nasal cavities
Paranasal sinuses
Pharynx
Laryngopharynx
Larynx
Trachea
Primary Bronchi
Lungs
Nose
* skin over bony framework
* distally hyaline cartilage
* external nares (nostrils) where nasal cavities open to exterior
* internal nares where nasal cavities open into nasopharynx
Nasal cavities
* inside of nose
* septum (vomer/perpendicular plate)
* paranasal sinuses and nasolacrimal ducts drain into nasal cavities (frontal, maxillary, ethmoid, sphenoid)
Histology of NASAL CAVITIES
* anteriorly stratifed squamous epithelium/coarse hairs
* laterally cilliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium (vascular) and coblet cells over turbinates
* roof contains olfactory cells
Function of Paranasal Sinuses
* warm, moisten
* resonating chamber
Pharynx aka
aka Throat
PHARYNX communicates with ...
* SUPERIORLY communicates with nasaloral cavities
* INFERIORLY communicates with larynx/esophagus
Name the portions of the PHARYNX
Nasopharynx
Oropharynx
Laryngopharynx
Nasopharynx
* upper portion (above soft palate)
* soft palate and uvula form floor
* auditory tube opens into
* pharyngeal tonsils on posterior wall
* lining pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
Oropharynx
* middle
* between soft palate/hyoid
* anterior wall base of tongue
* palatine and lingual tonsils
* lining stratified squamous epithelium
Laryngopharynx
* lower
* below hyoid
* inferiorly, opens into LARYNX anteriorly
opens into ESOPHAGUS posteriorly
* lining stratified squamous epithelium
Larynx
aka voice box
* connects laryngopharynx and trachea
* muscles/ligaments hold 9 cartilages together to form larynx
* lining ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium/goblet cells
Name the cartilages of the larynx
1. thyroid - aka adam's apple/largest
2. cricoid - ring shaped, below
3. epiglottis - leaf shaped/lid over glottis
4. arytenoid - (2), vocal cords attached to
5. cuneiform - (2), smallclub shaped
6. corniculate (2), smallhorn shaped
Functions of Larynx
* air passage
* protective sphincter
* sound production
Vocal Cords
* 2 pairs of mucous membrane folds stretch horizontally across entrance into larynx
* from thyroid cartilage to arytenoid cartilages
Ventricular folds
* upper
* "false" vocal cords
* support true vocal cords
True vocal cords
* lower
* vocal folds
within folds are elastic ligaments that connect to cartilages
* intrinsic muscles adjust tension (narrow/widen glottis)
* vibrate in sound production
Extrinsic muscles
elevate larynx during swallowing
Intrinsic muscles
change shape, position and tension of vocal cords
Need to produce sound:
* intrinsic muscles
* paranasal sinuses
* oralnasal cavities
* tongue
* lips
* larynx
pitch
* size of vocal cords
* tension on vocal cord
(longer, thicker ... lower)
(shorter, thinner ... high)
volume
regulated by amount of air exhaled over vocal cords
Trachea
aka windpipe
* 16-20 C-shaped incomplete cartilage rings
* permanently open/flexible
Trachea
location & histology
* anterior to esophagus
* lining ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium/ goblet cells.
* wall smooth muscle and elastic connective tissue
Primary Bronchi
* two
* right more vertical than left
* lining ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium
* cartilage "C"s / smooth muscle
Lungs
* two
* large, spongy organs in thoracic cavity
* right lung/3 lobes (thicker/broader)
* left lung/2 lobes
* covered by pleura (visceral parietal)
(serous membranes)
Bronchial tree
series of respiratory tubes within lungs
Path of Bronchial tree
Secondary bronchi
Tertiary bronchi
Terminal bronchioles
Respiratory bronchioles
Alveolar ducts
Alveoli
Secondary bronchi
aka lobar
* 3RT/2Lft one for each lobe
* histology like primary bronchi
Tertiary bronchi
* aka segmental
* 10Rt/8Lft lung
* histology like primary bronchi
Terminal bronchioles
* lining ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium
* smooth muscle
* no cartilage
Respiratory bronchioles
* first cuboidal epithelium
* then simple squamous epithelium
* smooth muscle
Alveolar ducts
simple squamous epithelium
Alveoli
* outpouchings/sacs
* 1 cell layer thick of simple squamous epithelium
* pneumocytes (type I,II)
* surrounded by capillaries
* site of GAS EXCHANGE
Ventilation
* Air moves INTO lungs when pressure in lungs is LESS than atmospheric
* Air moves OUT of lungs when pressure is GREATER than atmospheric
INSPIRATION
* Diaphragm and intercostal muscles CONTRACT
* Thoracic cage moves away from lung surface
* Intrapleural pressure (in pleural cavity) DECREASES
* Lung wall pulled out toward thorax
* Alveoli enlarge
* Air pressure in alveoli becomes less than atmospheric
* Air flows into alveoli
EXPIRATION
* passive
* Diaphragm and intercostal muscles relax
* Elastic RECOIL of lungs, thorax and abdominal structures
* Volume of thoracic cavity reduced, increasing
pressure in lung to slightly more than atmospheric
* Air forced out of lung
(until intrapulmonary pressure same as atmospheric)
Name the DISORDERS of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
Emphysema
Pneumonia
Asthma
Pleurisy
Emphysema
alveoli coelesce
(reduce surface area)
lose elasticity
Pneumonia
viral-bacterial infection
WBC/fluid acculmulates in lungs
gases can't exchange
Asthma
constriction of airway
smooth muscle
Pleurisy
inflammation of pleura due to infection/trauma
Capillaries of SI to Hepatic portal vein
capillaries of SI ->
Superior mesenteric vein ->
Hepatic Portal Vein
Capillaries of LI to Hepatic portal vein
Capillaries of LI ->
Inferior Mesenteric Vein ->
Splenic Vein ->
Hepatic Portal Vein
Capillaries of Pancreas to Hepatic portal vein
Capillaries of Pancreas ->
Pancreatic Vein ->
Splenic Vein ->
Hepatic Portal Vein
Capillaries of spleen to Hepatic portal vein
Capillaries of spleen ->
Splenic Vein ->
Hepatic Portal Vein
Capillaries of stomach to Hepatic portal vein
Capillaries of stomach ->
Left Gastroepiploic Vein ->
Splenic Vein ->
Hepatic Portal Vein