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133 Cards in this Set

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Where do the cranial nerves arise from?
The brain
Where do spinal nerves arise from?
The cord
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) includes:
* includes all neurons except those in brain or cord
* pathways of fibers between CNS and periphery of
body
* includes:
-- cranial nerves
-- spinal nerves
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS):
Fibers
AFFERENT FIBERS
* carry ALL sensory information from periphery to
CNS
EFFERENT FIBERS
* Somatic - motor cranial/spinal fibers connect CNS
to skin and skeletal muscles
* Autonomic- motor fibers connect CNS to heart,
smooth muscle & glands
Name the Cranial Nerves
I Olfactory II Optic
III Oculomotor IV Trochlear
V Trigeminal VI Abducens
VII Facial VIII Vestibulocochlear
IX Glossopharyngeal X Vagus
XI Accessory XII Hypoglossal
Cranial Nerve I:
Name
s/m/mx
What?
Where?
Olfactory
s
sense - olfaction
cribriform plate
Cranial Nerve II:
Name
s/m/mx
What?
Where?
Optic
s
sense - vision
optic foramen
Cranial Nerve III:
Name
s/m/mx
What?
Where?
Oculomotor
m
movement - eye
superior orbital fissure
Cranial Nerve IV:
Name
s/m/mx
What?
Where?
Trochlear
m
movement - eye
superior orbital fissure
Cranial Nerve V:
Name
s/m/mx
What?
Where?
Trigeminal
mx
sense - lids, nose, lip, teeth, palate, tongue
movement - facial muscles
ophthalmic branch - superior orbital fissure
maxillary branch - foramen rotundum
mandibular branch - foramen ovale
Cranial Nerve VI:
Name
s/m/mx
What?
Where?
Abducens
m
movement - eye
superior orbital fissure
Cranial Nerve VII:
Name
s/m/mx
What?
Where?
Facial
mx
sense - taste
movement - facial muscles
internal auditory canal
exits stylomastoid foramen
Cranial Nerve VIII:
Name
s/m/mx
What?
Where?
Vestibulocochlear
s
sense:
-- cochlear branch - hearing
-- vestibular branch - balance/equalibrium
internal auditory canal
Cranial Nerve IX:
Name
s/m/mx
What?
Where?
Glossopharyngeal
mx
sense - tongue, pharynx & palate
movement - pharyngeal muscles
jugular foramen
Cranial Nerve X:
Name
s/m/mx
What?
Where?
Vagus
mx
sense - pharynx, pinna, ext. auditory canal
& diaphragm
movement - motor to heart, smooth muscle, glands,
stomach, intestine & gall bladder
jugular foramen
Cranial Nerve XI:
Name
s/m/mx
What?
Where?
Accessory
m
movement- muscles of head & neck and swallowing
jugular foramen
Cranial Nerve XII:
Name
s/m/mx
What?
Where?
Hypoglossal
m
movement - muscles of tongue
hypoglossal canal
How many SPINAL NERVES do we have?
31 pairs
SPINAL NERVES:
Where do they exit the vertebral canal?
leave vertebral canal via intervertebral foramina
(except 1st pair which exit between occipital/atlas)
SPINAL NERVES:
Formed by ...
formed by union of dorsal/ventral roots
(spinal nerves mixed)
VENTRAL ROOT
Consists of ...
consists of axons of MOTOR neurons
(cell bodies in ventral/lateral column of gray matter of cord)
DORSAL ROOT
Consists of ...
consists of axons of SENSORY neurons entering dorsal column of gray matter
(cell bodies outside cord in dorsal root ganglia)
A spinal nerve DIVIDES just past the foramen into several branches into ....
Dorsal ramus
Ventral ramus
Rami communicans
Dorsal ramus
posterior branch
* innervates muscles & skin of back
Ventral ramus
anterior branch
* innervates muscles & skin of front/sides of
trunk/limbs
Rami communicans
white/gray of ANS
Ventral rami of successive spinal nerves JOIN to form ....
plexuses (networks) before going to their ultimate destinations.
Cervical plexus
nerves that will innervate neck, jaw, diaphragm
Brachial plexus
nerves that will innervate skin & muscles of upper limb
Lumbar plexus
nerves that will innervate skin & muscles of pelvis, buttocks, lower abdomen & lower limb
Sacral plexus
nerves that will innervate buttocks, perineum, lower extremities
The AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM (ANS) is composed of ...
motor (efferent) neurons that innervate cardiac muscle, smooth muscle and glands.
The AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM regulates:
1. Regulates heart rate
2. Regulates blood pressure
3. Regulates breathing rate
4. Regulates body temperature
The AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM normally functions ...
below conscious level (autonomously).
In the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM, Autonomic activities originate from ...
sensory signals in viscera or skin
What is unique about the way the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM carries impulses?
2 motor (efferent) neurons carry impulse to effector organ.
Name the 2 types of motor (efferent) neurons used to carry impulse in the ANS
Preganglionic neurons
Ganglionic neurons
Where is the cell body of a PREGANGLIONIC NEURON located?
In the CNS
Where is the cell body of a GANGLIONIC (or Postganglionic) NEURON located?
In the ganglia
Name the divisions of the ANS
Sympathetic
Parasympathetic
How do the Sypathetic and Parasympathetic divisions of the ANS differ?
Structurally and functionally
SYMPATHETIC (Thoracolumbar):

Cell bodies of preganglionic neurons located in ...
lateral column of gray matter of cord (T1-L2)
SYMPATHETIC (Thoracolumbar):

Axons of preganglionic neurons ...
leave cord via ventral root along with somatic motor axons and enter dorsal/ventral rami
SYMPATHETIC (Thoracolumbar):

After a short distance in ventral rami ...
fibers enter a chain of sympathetic (paravertebral) ganglia along vertebral column
SYMPATHETIC (Thoracolumbar):

Since preganglionic axons are ...
myelinated, pathways look white called ... white rami
Name the 3 things PREGANGLIONIC AXONS may do:
Synapse
Travel up/down
Pass Thru
PREGANGLIONIC AXON may do one of 3 things ....

SYNAPSE
with cell body of ganglionic cell then postganglionic fiber leaves ganglia via pathway called GRAY RAMUS and returns to spinal nerve (ventral ramus) and goes on to innervate effector
PREGANGLIONIC AXON may do one of 3 things ....

TRAVEL UP/DOWN
sympathetic trunk before synapsing with a ganglionic cell
PREGANGLIONIC AXON may do one of 3 things ....

PASS THRU
the sympathetic ganglion without synapsing and continue as splanchnic kerves which pass thru diaphragm and synapse with ganglionc cells in collateral ganglia near aorta. Postganglionic fibers of ganglionic cells leave ganglia to innervate visscera in abdominopelvic cavity.
PARASYMPATHETIC (Craniosacral):

Cell bodies of parasympathetic preganglionic fibers neurons are located in the ...
brain or the lateral column of gray matter of cord S2-4
PARASYMPATHETIC (Craniosacral):

Parasympathetic fibers ...
do not travel thru rami of spinal nerves
PARASYMPATHETIC (Craniosacral):

These fibers travel ...
with cranial/spinal nerves to ganglia in (intramural ganglia) or near (terminal ganglia) effector.
PARASYMPATHETIC (Craniosacral):

Notables
* antagonistic
* dual innervation
* one set of fibers activate - other inhibits
PARASYMPATHETIC System
Predominates ...
during resting condtions
SYMPATHETIC System
Predominates ...
"kicks in" during strenuous physical activity, stress or emergencies
Steps in STRESS (Crisis)
1. STRESS (crisis)
2. various brain areas
3. hypothalamus
4. stimulates RAS
5. energized (disregard pain/danger)
6. increase BP, HR, respiration
7. increase muscle tone
mobilization of energy reserves
Sympathetic RESPONDS .....

* INCREASE
* INCREASE
heart rate
blood pressure
blood flow to muscles
respiratory rate
blood glucose
secretion of sweat
Sympathetic RESPONDS .....

Name the responses
* INCREASE
* DILATE
* DECREASE
Sympathetic RESPONDS .....

* DILATE
* DILATE
pupil, bronchi
Sympathetic RESPONDS .....

* DECREASE
* DECREASE
blood flow to GI tract
Parasympathetic RESPONDS .....

Name the responses
* DECREASE
* CONSTRICT
* INCREASE
Parasympathetic RESPONDS .....

What does it do?
works in OPPOSTION
(returns body to normal after stress)
Parasympathetic RESPONDS .....

* DECREASE
* DECREASE
heart rate
blood pressure
flow to musccles
respiratory rate
Parasympathetic RESPONDS .....

* CONSTRICT
* CONSTRICT
pupil, bronchi
Parasympathetic RESPONDS .....

* INCREASE
* INCREASE
activity of glands
contraction smooth muscle of GI tract
production of tears
Drugs:
Name them
amphetamine
atropine
Drugs:

amphetamine
a sympathomimetric drug
Drugs:

atropine
inhibits parasympathetic
Disorders:
Name them
Cerebral Palsy
Meningitis
Poliomyelitis
Disorders:

Cerebral Palsy
a condition of motor disorder characterized by muscle weakness and lack of function caused by damage to the brain during prenatal development, birth, or infancy
Disorders:

Meningitis
infection of the meninges
cocci, bacilli, viral
often respiratory entry
Disorders:

Poliomyelitis
virus destroys nerve cells of anterior (ventral) horn of spinal cord
SENSE ORGANS:

allow us to ...
perceive our external/internal environments
SENSE ORGANS:

2 major kinds of ....
sensory receptors according to LOCATION
* Exteroreceptors:
monitor conditions at/near body surface
* Interoreceptors:
monitors conditions inside the body
proprioceptors -
allow you to know the position of the body
Contained in tendons & muscles
(golgi tendon aparatus & muscle spindle aparatus)
SENSORY RECEPTORS can also be classified according to the nature of the stimulus that excites them ...
1. Nociceptors
2. Thermoreceptors
3. Mechanoreceptors
4. Chemoreceptors
SENSORY RECEPTORS:

Nociceptors
pain receptors, respond to tissue damage (free nerve endings)
SENSORY RECEPTORS:

Thermoreceptors
respond to changes in temperature (cold/warm)
SENSORY RECEPTORS:

Mechanoreceptors
respond to distortion (fine touch/pressure/baroreceptors)
SENSORY RECEPTORS:

Chemoreceptors
respond to chemical changes
(H+, CO2, O2)
Barow receptors ...
in the walls of vessels
preceive pressure in walls of arteries
Eye:
* sense organ that contains receptors for vision
* Eye refracts (bends) and focus incoming light waves
onto photoreceptors at the back of each eye
* inpulse pathway

Photoreceptors (electrical change) -->
optic nerve (optic canal) -->
occipital lobe
EYE Associated Structures:
Eyelids
Conjuctiva
Lacrimal apparatus
Extrinsic muscles
EYE Associated Structures:

Eyelids
protect from sun/foreign particles
tarsal glands - oily secretion (chalazion)
glands of Zeis - large sebaeceous glands
ciliary glands - sweat
EYE Associated Structures:

Conjunctiva
lines lids/covers anterior surface eyeball
prevents objects access
EYE Associated Structures:

Lacrimal apparatus
lacrimal glands and ducts
superior/lateral region of orbit
secretes lacrimal fluid (salts/mucin)
lubricates, lysozymes (bacteriocidal)
EYE Associated Structures:

Extrinsic Muscles
move eye

* 4 rectus muscles
- lateral/medial/superior/inferior
* 2 oblique muscles
- inferior/superior
EYE:
3 Layers (tunics)
Fibrous (outer)
Vascular (middle)
Nervous (inner)
EYE:
Fibrous Layer
Name the components
Cornea
Sclera
EYE:
Vascular Layer
Name the components
Choroid
Ciliary body (muscle/processes)
Iris
EYE:
Nervous Layer
Name the components
Retina
Eye
Fibrous Layer:
CORNEA
* on anterior 1/6 of eye
* transparent, refractive, convex, avascular
* dense connective tissue
* outer layer of stratified squamous epithelium
(continuous with conjunctiva)
Eye
Fibrous Layer:
SCLERA
* on posterior 5/6 of eye
* white, opaque
* dense connective tissue
* protects/maintains shape
* optic nerve exits thru
Eye
Vascular Layer:
CHOROID
* vascular, darkly pigmented
* prevents light from being reflected
Eye
Vascular Layer:
CILIARY BODY
* continuous with choroid
* forms ring of smooth muscle
* attaches to suspensory ligaments (zonule fibers)
Eye
Vascular Layer:
IRIS
* continuous with ciliary body
* colored portion of eyeball
* smooth muscle fibers (circular/radial)
Eye
Nervous Layer:
RETINA
* innermost layer in posterior portion of eye
* thin/outer pigmented layer
* inner nervous tissue layer
* contains photoreceptors (rods/cones)
* 1 million/eye
Pupil
(in iris)
changes size to adjust light entering
Pupillary radial muscles contracts ...
pupil dilated
Pupillary sphincter contracts ...
pupil constricts
Accommodation
shape of lens chages for near and far vision
rounded = near
flat = far
Eye
Nervous Layer:
Retina
Macula lutea
yellow area at exact posterior pole
Eye
Nervous Layer:
Retina
Fovea centralis
center of macula lutea
cones most concentrated
area of most acute vision
Eye
Nervous Layer:
Retina
Blind Spot (optic disc)
where optic nerve (axons) leaves retina
no rods/cones
lens round
Ciliary muscles contract/suspensory ligaments relax
lens flat
Ciliary muscles relax/suspensory ligaments contract
Name the CAVITIES of the EYE
Anterior Cavity
Posterior Cavity
Cavities of the Eye:
ANTERIOR CAVITY
* lens to cornea
* aqueous humor
* ciliary body secretes 5-6 ml daily
* maintains intraocular pressure, nutrients, oxygen

ANTERIOR CHAMBER (iris to cornea)
POSTERIOR CHAMBER (lens to iris)
Cavities of the Eye:
POSTERIOR CAVITY
* lens to retina
* vitreous humor
* formed prenatally
* transparent, gel-like, support
Ear:
Organ of ...
* organ of hearing and equalibrium
Ear:
Name the regions
3 regions:
External
Middle
Inner
Ear
EXTERNAL Region:
Auricle (pinna)
External acoustic (auditory) meatus
Tympanic membrane
Ear
MIDDLE Region:
3 ossicles:
Malleus, Incus, Stapes
* middle ear ossicles are contained in tympanic cavity
in the temporal bone
* tympanic cavity communicates with nasopharynx
via auditory tube (Eustachian tube) to
equalize pressure on either side of tympanic
membrane
Ear
INNER Region
Osseous (bony) labyrinth
Membranous labyrinth
Ear
Inner Region
OSSEOUS (BONY) LABYRINTH
* series of passageways hollowed out of bone
* within which is contained the membranous labyrinth

Vestibule
Semicircular Canals
Cochlea
Ear
Inner Region
Osseous (bony) labyrinth
VESTIBULE
contains oval/round windows
Ear
Inner Region
Osseous (bony) labyrinth
SEMICIRCULAR CANALS
* 3 bony canals
* at right angles to each other
Ear
Inner Region
Osseous (bony) labyrinth
COCHLEA
* snail shaped
* 3 Scala (chambers)
Ear
Inner Region
Osseous (bony) labyrinth
Cochlea
3 SCALA OF COCHLEA
1. scala vestibuli
* begins at oval window
2. scala tympani
* terminates at round window
3. scala media (cochlear duct)
* which is part of membranous labyrinth
* contains the Organ of Corti
Ear
Inner Region
MEMBRANOUS LABYRINTH
Saccule & Utricle
* which have receptor cells for linear head
movements
Membranous semicircular canals
* which have receptor cells for angular
head movements
Cochlear duct (scala media)
* contains the Organ of Corti
Conducting media of ear
Endolymph
- inside membranous labyrinth

Perilymph
- between membranous and osseous labyrinths
Organ of Corti
contains hair cells (sound receptors) which transform mechanical vibrations into nerve impulses
Name the Disorders of the Eye:
Myopia
Hyperopia
Presbyopia
Amblyopia
Astigmatism
Glaucoma
Cataracts
Name the Disorders of the Ear:
Otoschlerosus
Sensineural Deafness
Disorders of the Eye
MYOPIA
elongation of the eyeball which causes light waves to focus in front of the retina
Disorders of the Eye
HYPEROPIA
shortness of the eyeball which causes light waves to focus behind the retina
Disorders of the Eye
PRESBYOPIA
lens loses its ability to accommodate
Disorders of the Eye
AMBLYOPIA
"lazy eye" muscle weakness in one eye do eyes don't converge
Disorders of the Eye
ASTIGMATISM
irregular curvature of the cornea or lens
Disorders of the Eye
GLAUCOMA
aqueous humor accumulates in the anterior cavity
Disorders of the Eye
CATARACTS
chemical change within the protein of the lens
Disorders of the Ear
OTOSCLEROSIS
bones in middle ear fuse (conduction)
Disorders of the Ear
SENSINEURAL DEAFNESS
damage to neural structures