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99 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Biology is ...
the study of living things
Anatomy is ...
* a branch of biology
* the study of structure and the relationships between structures
Approaches to study of Anatomy
1. Microscopic Anatomy
* cytology
* histology
2. Gross Anatomy
* surface
* regional
* systemic
Different Perspectives on Anatomy
a. developmental anatomy
b. comparative anatomy
c. radiographic anatomy
d. medical (pathological) anatomy
Language of Anatomy
* Greek or Latin
* Prefixes, roots and suffixes
* Text page 775
SAP
Standard Anatomical Position
* starting point for positional references of the body
- body erect
- facing forward
- feet together
- arms at sides
- palms facing forward
Anterior
aka ventral
On or near the front or ventral surface of the body.
Posterior
aka dorsal
Towards the back; dorsal.
Superior
aka craniad, cephalad
Directional reference meaning above.
Inferior
aka caudad
A directional reference meaning below.
Medial
aka mesial
Toward the midline of the body.
Lateral
Pertaining to the side.
Proximal
Toward the attached base of an organ or structure.
Distal
Movement away from the point of attachment or origin; for a limb, away from its attachment to the trunk.
Superficial
Toward surface
Deep
Away from surface
Peripheral
around edge
Supine
Lying face up, with palms facing anteriorly
Prone
lying horizontally face down
Planes
* imaginary surfaces used to visualize the body sectioned
1. Sagittal (midsagittal, parasagittal)
2. Frontal (coronal)
3. Transverse (horizontal, cross)
Sections
* drawings/pictures cut on planes produce sections
1. Frontal section
2. Cross section
3. Midsagittal section
the human body is ...
bilaterally symmetrical
Body Cavities:

Name the main Cavities
1. Ventral Cavity
2. Dorsal Cavity
Body Cavities:

1. Ventral Cavity

Name the subdivisions
a. thoracic cavity
b. abdominopelvic cavity
Body Cavities:

1. Dorsal Cavity

Name the subdivisions
a. cranial cavity
b. spinal cavity

* retroperitoneal
Body Cavities:
1. Ventral Cavity
- thoracic cavity
* pericardial cavity
* pleural (2) cavities
* mediastinal space (not a cavity)
Body Cavities:
1. Ventral Cavity
- abdominopelvic cavity
* abdominal cavity
* pelvic cavity
Cells
* all living things are composed of cells
* all activities essential for life occur in cells
* human body contains trillions of cells
Typical Cell
* plasma membrane
* cytoplasm
a. cytosol (intracellular fluid)
b. inclusions
c. organelles
Types of organelles
* membranous
- nucleus, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, lysosomes and peroxisomes
* nonmembranous
- cytoskeleton, microvilli, centioles, flagella, and ribosomes
name the tissue types in the body
there are 4 tissue types:
1. Epithelial
2. Connective
3. Muscle
4. Nervous
Epithelial Tissue:

Description
* close fitting cells, little matrix, on free surface, avascular, nerve supply, mitosis, sheets
Epithelial Tissue:

Functions
1. protection
2. absorption
3. filtration
4. secretion
5. lubrication
Epithelial Tissue:

Location
1. covers external surfaces
2. lines internal cavities or passageways
3. glands and ducts of glands
Epithelial tissues are NAMED according to ....
1. shape
2. arrangement
Epithelial tissue:

shape
* squamous
* cuboidal
* columnar
Epithelial:

Arrangement
* simple
* stratified
* pseudostratified
* transitional
Simple Squamous Epitheium
1. lines the heart (endocardium)
2. lines blood vessels (endothelium)
3. capillaries
4. alveoli
5. lines ventral body cavities ... mesothelia
(pleura, pericardium and peritoneum)
6. glomerular capsules
Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
1. kidney tubules
2. surface of ovary
3. pancreas
4. thyroid gland
5. ducts of glands
Simple Columnar Epithelium
1. lines GI tract from stomach to anal canal
2. ducts of glands
3. lines gallbladder
4. lines oviducts
Stratified Squamous Epithelium
1. epidermis of skin
2. lines mouth, pharynx, esophagus, and anus
3. lines vagina
Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium
1. lines male urethra
2. lines nasal cavity, trachea, bronchi
3. lines auditory tube
Transitional Epithelium
1. lines urinary bladder
2. lines ureter
3. lines part of urethra
4. lines renal pelvis
Glands
* are organs that are composed partly or wholly of epithelium
* can be unicellular/multicellular
* endocrine or exocrine
Glands can be classified according to their ...
STRUCTURE or FUNCTION
STRUCTURAL Types of Glands
1. Simple coiled tubular
2. Simple branched tubular
3. Compound tubuloalveolar
4. Compound alveolar
5. Simple branched alveolar
FUNCTIONAL Types of Glands
1. Merocrine
2. Apocrine
3. Holocrine
merocrine
product released by exocytosis
no destruction of cells
apocrine
secretions accumulate at one end of cell ... pinch off.
- cells only slightly damaged
holocrine
secretions accumulate in cells
- cells rupture/die
Glands
Name them
SWEAT (simple coiled tubular) merocrine
MUCOUS & GASTRIC (simple branched tubular) merocrine
SALIVARY & PANCREAS (compound tubuloalveolar) merocrine
MAMMARY (compound alveolar) apocrine
SEBACEOUS (simple branched alveolar) holocrine
Membranes
1. Mucous membranes
2. Serous membranes
3. Cutaneous membrane
4. Synovial membranes
Membranes:

Mucous membranes
* line cavities open to the exterior
* histology varies
a. GI tract
b. reproductive system
c. respiratory system
d. urinary system
Membranes:

Serous membranes
* line closed cavities
* simple squamous epithelium over areolar connective tissue
2 layers:
a. visceral layer - covers organs
b. parietal layer - lines cavity
examples: pleura, pericardium, peritoneum
Membranes:

Cutaneous membrane
skin
Membranes:

Synovial membranes
line joint cavities
Connective Tissues:

Description
1. cells (fibroblasts, macrophages, adipocytes, mesenchyme cells, plasma cells, lymphocytes, etc.)
2. matrix (intercellular substance)
* ground substance
* fibers (collagen, elastic, reticlar)
* fluid --> fibrous/solid
Connective Tissues:

General Info
* capable of mitosis
* has nerve supply
* some vascular/avascular
Connective Tissues:

Location....
NOT on surface
Connective Tissues:

Functions
1. supports/connects
2. protects
3. structural framework
4. insulates
5. transporting materials
6. store energy
7. defense
Areolar Connective Tissue:

General
* cells (macrophages, fibroblasts, adipocytes, mesenchyme cells)
* matrix (fibers/ground substance)
* least specialized connective tissue
* most widespread connective tissue in body
Areolar Connective Tissue:

Locations
1. surrounds and supports blood vessels/nerves
2. connects skin to subcutaneous tissue
3. around/between body organs
4. under lingin of GI respiratory and urinary tract
5. in dermis
6. in superficial fascia
7. between muscles
Adipose:

General
* adipocytes
* little or no intercellular substance
* functions for nutrient storage, padding, cushions, insulator and filler
Adipose:

Locations
1. fat depots
2. subcutaneous layer of skin
3. yellow bone marrow
4. in membranes
5. around heart and kidneys
6. behind eyes
Dense Regular Connective Tissue
* aka white fibrous
Description: fibroblasts, elastic fibers and PARALLEL arranged collagen fibers
Location: Tendons, ligaments, aponeuroses
Dense Irregular Connective Tissue:

General
* similar to areolar connective tissue but, fewer cells and more collagen fibers
* many RANDOM collagen fibers
Dense Irregular Connective Tissue:

Location
dermis, perichondrium, periosteum, perineurium, capsules (liver, kidneys, spleen) and fascia
Cartilage:

General
* chondrocytes in lacunae
* matrix (chondroitin sulfate) with fibers
Cartilage:

Name the types
Three types:
1. Hyaline cartilage
2. Elastic cartilage
3. Fibrocartilage
Hyaline Cartilage:

General
* closely packed collagen fibers in matrix
* flexible support
* reduces friction/absorb shock
* most abundant cartilage in body
Hyaline Cartilage:

Location
1. skeleton of embryo
2. costal cartilages
3. articular cartilages
4. tracheal rings
5. parts of larynx
Elastic Cartilage:

General
* matrix is a network of ELASTIC and collagen fibers
* firm, but resilient and flexible
Elastic Cartilage:

Locations
1. auricle
2. epiglottis and other parts of larynx
3. auditory tube
Fibrocartilage:

General
* matrix coarse with thick, collagen fibers in PARALLEL bundles
* resists compression, absorbs shock and prevents bone-bone damage
Fibrocartilage:

Locations
1. intervertebral discs
2. articular discs (menisci/pubic symphysis/shoulder/TMJ)
Bone
* osteoblasts/osteocytes (in lacunae)
* 1/3 matrix is collagen fibers ( in which salts are deposited)
* vascular
* supports, protects, stores minerals, forms blood cells and stores fat

Location: skeleton
Blood
* cells (RBC/WBC)
* matrix (plasma)
* transports substances
* protection (immunity/clotting)

Location: heart and blood vessels
Muscle Tissue
* specialized to contract and therefore produce MOVEMENT
* three types:
1. smooth muscle
2. skeletal muscle
3. cardiac muscle
Smooth muscle
* spindle shaped, small cells, central, single nucleus
Location:
1. walls of hollow organs
2. walls of ducts
3. walls of blood vessels
Skeletal muscle
* large cells, multinucleate, striated, peripheral nuclei

Location: attached to skeleton
cardiac muscle:

General & Location
* cells with single nuclei, intercalated discs, striations, and branching

Location: heart only
Nervous tissue:

General & Location
* cells specialized to receive/transmit impulses
* logest cells in body
* most no mitosis
Location: mostly brain and spinal cord
Nervous Tissue:

Name the cell types
two cell types:
1. neurons - conduct impulses
2. neuroglia - various support cells
Integumentary System:

General
* aka cutaneous membrane/ skin
* accessory structures: hairs, nails, and glands
* largest, most versatile organ of body
* 0.5-4 mm in thickness
* 6 lbs
* 7 x 3 square foot area
* covers body
Integumentary System:

Functions
1. protection
2. contains receptors
3. helps regulate body temperature
4. synthesis of vitamin D
5. excretes water/salts/organic wastes
Integumentary System:

Layers
2 layers:
1. epidermis (surface)
2. dermis (deep)
Epidermis
* outer
* stratified squamous epithelium
* avascular
* 4 layers (strata)
(5 palms/soles)
Stratum basale
* aka germinativum
* next to dermis
* deepest stratum
* firmly attached to basement membrane
* 1 row of cuboidal/columnar shaped cells
* keratinocytes (stem cells/mitosis)
* melanocytes (melanin)
stratum spinosum
* 8-10 rows
* flat, spiny, polyhedral cells
* may be mitosis
stratum granulosum
* 3-5 rows
* grainy layer
* no mitosis
* produce keratohyalin granules
* cell membrane becoming thicker, less permeable
* nucleus breaking down
* cells dying
stratum lucidum
* 3-5 rows
* clear layer flattened cells/anucleate
* contain ELEIDIN
stratum corneum
(horny)
* 25-30 rows
* flat cells
* nuclei and organelles disintegrate
* dead cells
* KERATIN inside cell membranes (keratinized)
* creates protective barrier
* shed continuously (15-30 days from stratum basale until shed)
Dermis:

components
two components:

1. papillary layer
(directly under epidermis)
2. reticular layer
(under papillary)
Papillary layer
* areolar connective tissue with fibroblasts, fat cells and macrophages
* capillaries and nerves
* dermal papillae project between epidermal ridges
reticular layer
* dense irregular connective tissue
* attached to subcutaneous tissue
* collagen, reticular and elastic fibers
* collagen fibers anchor to papillary layer and hypodermis
* contains blood vessels, nerves, lymph vessels, hair follicles, sweat and sebaceous glands
* leather
skin color
* melanin
* carotene
* hemoglobin
* number of melanocytes rather constant
* distribution of melanocytes / amouont of nelanin produced variable
Accessory Structures
* epidermal derivatives
* hairs
* nails
* sudoriferous glands (sweat/eccrine)
* sebaceous glands (oil)
* ceruminous glands
Effects of Aging on Skin

Part 1
* epidermis/dermis become thinner
* number of collagen fibers decrease
* elastic fibers lose elasticity
* fibroblasts decrease in number
* macrophages become less phagocytic
* hair and nails grow more slowly
* decrease in size of sebaceous glands
Effects of Aging on Skin

Part 2
* decrease in function of sweat glands
* decrease number of melanocytes
* increase size of some melanocytes
* decrese blood supply
* loss of subcutaneous fat
* vitamin D production declines
* skin = thin, dry, wrinkled, spots, white hair