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30 Cards in this Set

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Stuttering Definition
A disorder of fluency and of rhythm
Stuttering Types
Anticipatory, apprehensive, hypertonic, avoidance reaction; What a person does to avoid stuttering; Social role conflict
Stuttering Facts
; Both genetic factors and environmental factors play a part in the etiology; Onset is between 3-6 years of age. Adult onset is rare; Onset may be sudden or gradual; Incidence is 1% in the U.S. population; More males than females. Ratio 3:1 in elementary, 4:1 in higher grades; Family prevalence is higher than the general population, especially in families that have a female who stutters as opposed to a male; Concordance rate in identical twins is 30-80%
Different Types of Dysfluencies
1. Repetitions: Part/whole or phrase; 2. Sound prolongations; 3. Silent propogations: articulatory postures held for a duration longer than average without vocalization; 4. Interjections; 5. Pauses; 6. Broken Words; 7. Incomplete Sentences; 8. Revisions
Spontaneous Recovery
Stuttering disappearance without professional help. Recovery rate has been reported at either 30-35% or 60%
Associated Motor Behaviors: (accidentally reinforced)
Excessive muscular effort ; Various facial grimaces ; Various hand and foot movement (tapping the foot); Rapid eye blinking; Knitting of the eyebrows; Lip Pursing; Rapid opening and closing of the mouth; Tongue clicking
Associated Breathing Abnormalities: (stuttering symptom complex)
Attempts to speak on inhalation; Holding breath before talking; Continued attempts to speak even when air supply is exhausted; Interruption of inhalations by exhalations and vice versa; Speaking without first inhaling a sufficient amount of air; Rapid and jerky breathing during speech; Exhaling puffs of air during stuttered speech; Generally tensed breathing
Loci of Stuttering: Adults and School Age Children
Consonants more than vowels; First sound or syllable of a word; First word in a phrase or sentence; First word in a grammatical clause ; Longer words; Less frequently used words; Content words; Preschool Children: Same as adults except more on function words rather than content words; More whole word repetitions
Stimulus Control
Variations found in the frequency of stuttering are due to variations in stimuli which suggest a strong environmental control
Adaptation Effect
The systematic reduction in the frequency of stuttering when a short printed passage is repeatedly read aloud. (Most reduction had occurred by the fifth reading.) Adaptation is due to a deconfirmation of the expectancy of stuttering, which results in reduced anxiety and reduced stuttering or reduced fear, or the rehearsal effect
Consistency Effect
The occurrence of stuttering on the same word or loci when a passage is read aloud repeatedly
Adjacency Effect
The occurrence of new stuttering on words that surround previously stuttered words
Audience Size Effect
The observation that the frequency of stuttering increases with an increase in audience size
Genetic Hypothesis
A potential genetic basis of stuttering is suggested by the following observations: High familial incidence; Gender ratio in the prevalence of stuttering; Higher concordance rate among identical twins; No gene or chromosomal abnormality responsible for stuttering has been identified
Neurophysiological Hypothesis
People who stutter have an abnormal neurophysiological or neuromotor organization
Laryngeal Hypothesis
Due to aberrant laryngeal functions
Hypotheses on the brain & speech & language mechanisms & stuttering
The auditory portion of the brain may not be working properly or there may be an auditory processing problem
Learning, Conditioning, and Related Hypotheses:Stuttering as an operant behavior
(changed by changing its consequences=learned.)
Learning, Conditioning, and Related Hypotheses: Stuttering as speech disruption due to classically conditioned negative emotion
Stuttering can only be reduced by counter-conditioning more positive emotional reactions that replace the negative emotions
Learning, Conditioning, and Related Hypotheses: Stuttering as avoidance behavior
Parents punish a child’s normal nonfluencies, the child develops anticipatory, apprehensive and hypertonic avoidance reactions that are indeed stutterings
Learning, Conditioning, and Related Hypotheses: Stuttering as approach avoidance
A stuttering person’s hesitations and repetitions indicate a conflict in the desire to approach speaking situations and an equally strong desire to avoid them
Learning, Conditioning, and Related Hypotheses: Stuttering as a reaction to tension and fragmentation
Communicative pressure leads to communicative failures. A child believes that the speech task is too difficult
Learning, Conditioning, and Related Hypotheses: Stuttering due to demands exceeding capacities
Stuttering can result when a child faces demands for communication that he/she cannot meet because of limited capacities
Learning, Conditioning, and Related Hypotheses:Stuttering as a form of psychoneurosis
May be a psychological disorder
Psychological Methods of Treatment
Psychotherapy and counceling
Fluent-Stuttering Method: (Van Riper)Aka Stutter-more-fluently approach:
Modifying the severity and visible abnormality of stuttering is the most realistic goal for many people who stutter
Fluency Reinforcement Method:
Positively reinforce fluent speech in young children in a naturalistic conversational contexts
Masking and Delayed Auditory Feedback Techniques
Altered auditory feedback of speech. Uses delayed auditory feedback (DAF), to induce a slow speech with reduced prosodic features, syllable prolongation, and prolongation of vowels
Direct Stuttering Reduction Methods
To reduce stuttering directly without teaching specific fluency skills or modifying stuttering into less abnormal forms. The behavior methods of time-out (pause after each dysfluency) and response cost (a positive reinforcer is taken away) may be used
Cluttering
A disorder of fluency characterized by rapid but disordered articulation, possibly combined with a high rate of dysfluencies & disorganized thought & lang. It tends to coexist w/ stuttering, but not the other way around. Excessive amounts of dysfluencies, rapid reps of syllables, clearer artic with slower rate of speech, monotone, jerky/stumbling, reduced awareness/anxiety