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125 Cards in this Set

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Concepts
Abstract ideas that represent something in the world, in a simplified form.
Ideas
Variables
Values that change from case to case

2 Types of Variables Independent - the causal variable, i.e., age has an effect on drug use (age is the independent variable) and Dependent is the thing in which the independent has an effect, such as drugs
Measurement of Variables
The value that you put on the variable.

Operationaliztion: What you are going to measure.
measuring value
Reliability
Consistent measurement.
Validity
measuring exactly what you are going to measure. Ex. Does an instrument measure exactly what it sets out to measure?
IN order to be valid
Relationships between variables
Existence of Correlation
Types of Variables
Correlations
Cause and Effect
When one change in a variable causes change in another. Example, overcrowding causes delinquency.
Types of Variables
Independent: The variable that causes the change (overcrowding)

Dependent: The variable that changes (delinquency)
Correlation
When two or more variables change together.
Correlation
Two or more variables change together.
Conditions for cause and effect be considered.
Are the cause and effect related.

Did the cause precede the effect in time.

There can be no other explanation.
Survey Research
use of questionnaire or interactive interview.
A Population
A defined group that you will interview.
A sample (2 types of samples)
A group selected at random

Probability Sample - Each person in the population must have an equal chance at selection.

Nonprobability samples - does not involve random selection. They are easier to compile but the findings using such a study cannot be used to make generalized statements.
Approaches to Research
Quantitative Data
Qualitative data
Tringulation
Quantitative Data
Data that are easily measured, that can be reduced to numbers
Qualitative
they produce data that are not easily reduced to numbers but reside in the form of revealing quotes, metaphors.
Triangulation
Getting a fix on a phenomeon with the use of multiple sources of data.
Time Frames
Cross Sectional
Longitudinal
Prospective
Retrospective
Cross Sectional
a study in which a group (or groups) of individuals are are made up of one large sample and studied at only a single point in time
Longitudinal
study of persons over time like twins
Prospective
concerned with or related to the future; "prospective earnings"; "a prospective mother"; "the statute is solely prospective in operation"
Retrospective
Looking back at events that have already taken place
Objectivity
Ideal versus reality

Max Webers' thoughts
Ideal vs. Reality
Obj is always more of an ideal than a reality for scientists

Total imprtiality is impossible to achieve.

Think in terms of selecting the topic of interest and question formation.
Max Weber's Thoughts
Social Reseach is value-relevant. (Consider the topics/issues under investigation)

Researchers simply need to try their best to achieve a value-free position in pursuit of their conclusions.

Replication by others is one key.
Creative thinking is important for at least three reasons
Insight

Science cannot take into account the range of human motivations and feelings.

Scientific data always calls for a subjective interpretation.
Social Research has Limitation
Humans are too complex to precisely predict actions

Hawthorne effect on subjects

The amount of diversity and social change found in society results in continual change.

True obj is difficult, if not impossible to achieve.
Gender and Research
Androcentricity
Overgeneralizing
Gender Insensitivity
Double Standards
Interference
Androcentricity
MALE-CENTERED RESEARCH
Overgeneralizing
USING DATA COLLECTED FROM ONE SEX AND APPLYING THE
FINDINGS TO BOTH SEXES
Gender Insensitivity
THE FAILURE TO CONSIDER THE IMPACT OF GENDER AT ALL
IN THE SUBJECT MATTER IN QUESTION
Double Standards
THE SAME STANDARDS SHOULD BE APPLIED TO BOTH SEXES
IN ORDER NOT TO DISTORT FINDINGS
Interference
THIS OCCURS WHEN A SUBJECT UNDER STUDY REACTS TO
THE SEX OF THE RESEARCHER RATHER THAN THE SUBJECT
MATTER UNDER STUDY
STRATEGIES FOR SYSTEMATICALLY
CARRYING OUT SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH
EXPERIMENTS
HIGHLY CONTROLLED CONDITIONS

SURVEYS
QUESTIONNAIRES AND INTERVIEWS

PARTICIPANT OBSERVATIONS
JOINING IN ACTIVITIES OF GROUPS

EXISTING SOURCES
sECONDARY ANALYSIS OF DATA
ESPE
Questionares and Interviews (Strenghts and Weaknesses)
SOME STRENGTHS:
1.INEXPENSIVE AND SIMPLE
2. quick tuRNAROUND
3. INTERVIEWERS CAN ALSO MAKE NOTe ABOUT THE
ENVIRONMENT AND PERSON

SOME WEAKNESSES:
1. CAN GET A LOW RESPONSE RATE
2.FACE TO FACE INTERVIEWS CAN BE EXPENSIVE AND
TAKE MORE TIME
3. PRESSURES TO KEEP INTERVIEW BRIEF
4. MUST ASSUME THAT ALL RESPONDENTS are thinking alike.
EVALUATION
RESEARCH
ASSESSES EFFICIENCY AND
EFFECTIVENESS OF SOCIAL
PROGRAMS


weakness POLITICS” CAN
get involved and their would be a loss of objectivity.
PARTICIPANT OBSERVATION
OBSERVING PEOPLE IN THEIR
NATURAL SURROUNDINGS

COMPLETE PARTICIPANT
(TOTAL INVOLVEMENT IN RESEARCH SCENE
WITHOUT LETTING OTHERS KNOW OF RESEARCH), INTERESTSA psychologist employed in a clinic spends time observing and recording

PARTICIPANT-AS-OBSERVER
(fULL PARTICIPATION AND MAKING CLEAR TO
THE POPULATION UNDER STUDY ONE’S ROLE AS
RESEARCHER)A researcher gets a job in a child psychology clinic in order to observe

OBSERVER-AS-PARTICIPANT
(INTERACTS AS PARTICIPANT, MAKING NO
PRETENSE OF ACTUALLY BEING A PARTICIPANT)A researcher sits in a clinic room, observing and taking notes.

COMPLETE OBSERVER
(OBSERVES SOCIAL PROCESS WITHOUT
BECOMING A PART OF IT IN ANY WAY)A psychology researcher observes children with a therapist by operating a video camera from outside the room
SOME PRO’S AND CON’S to Participant Observation
STRENGTHS:
(HIGH VALIDITY SINCE THE RESEARCHER took part.

WEAKNESSES:
TIME CONSUMING eXPENSIVE, rESEARCHER MUST ENSURE HIS OR HER
SOURCES ARE RELIABLE, RESEARCHER MUST UNDERSTAND LANGUAGE
AND CUSTOMS TO A HIGH DEGREE
OTHER
RESEARCH OBJECTIVES
SECONDARY ANALYSIS
(EXAMING DATA THAT HAS ALREADY
BEEN COLLECTED FOR SOMEONE
ELSE
• HISTORICAL MATERIALS
• PERSONAL DOCUMENTS
• PUBLIC RECORDS
• ANOTHER RESEARCHER’S DATA SET
– KEEP IN MIND
• THIS METHOD CAN BE RELATIVELY
INEXPENSIVE, BUT SOMEONE ELSE
CONSTRUCTED THE INSTRUMENT,
COLLECTED THE DATA, AND RECORDED
IT……ALL THINGS TO KEEP IN MIND!
5
THE RESEARCH PROCESS
SELECT AND DEFINE TOPIC
• LITERATURE REVIEW IS
CONDUCTED
• ASSESS REQUIREMENTS FOR
STUDY
• DEVELOP KEY QUESTIONS TO ASK
• CONSIDER ETHICAL ISSUES
• DEVISE A RESEARCH STRATEGY
• COLLECT THE DATA
• INTERPRET THE FINDINGS
• STATE CONCLUSIONS
• PUBLISH THE FINDINGS
10
ETHICS AND RESEARCH
FINDINGS MUST BE DISCLOSED IN FULL
• RESEARCHERS MUST BE WILLING TO SHARE
THEIR DATA
• PROTECTION OF THE RIGHTS AND PRIVACY

• SUBJECTS MUST BE MADE AWARE OF THE
TRUE PURPOSE

• MAINTAIN AWARENESS OF ANY DANGERS
5
EXAMPLES OF ETHICAL
PROBLEMS IN RESEARCH
Nazi Germany
• Milgram's Obedience Study _ study of Shock
• Tuskegee Syphilis Study -40 yrs with new real treatment or advise that the study was being conducted.
• Stanford Prison Study -simiulated prison with college student guards and prisoners rebelled
• Tearoom Trade: Laud Humphries - men having sex with men, got licence and went and interview a yr later.
Norms/Laws/and Crime
• NORMS
– RULES AND EXPECTATIONS

RESOCIALIZATION PROCESSES through ceremonies of degragation)
mETHODS USED TO ALTER A PERSON’S perspective on issues.

• CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM
– THE INSTITUTION THAT IS RESPONSIBLE FOR
REACTING TO VIOLATIONS OF
Some Basic Definitions
Criminology - The branch of Sociology which deals with the
study of crime (Pos Approach)

Crime -defined as an intentional act
committed in violation of a law
(Failure to tell on a co-worker)

misdemeanor -any crime that has a maximum
penalty of less than one year in prison.

felony - any crime that has a maximum penalty
set by law of one year or more in prison.

Vice is any crime in which there is no clear cut
victim. (example is a prostitute)
Crimes being reported.
Most violations of criminal law are
never reported. (Rape, giving friends pizza)
• Many types of crime are highly unlikely
to ever be reported. (Shoplifting)
• Many times successful crimes are never
detected.
• The best known indicator of crime is the
"FBI's Uniform Crime Reports."
Name the crime.
CRIMES AGAINST THE PERSON
– DIRECT VIOLENCE, OR THREAT OF IT
• CRIMES AGAINST PROPERTY
– INVOLVES THEFT OF PROPERTY
• HATE CRIMES
– CRIMES MOTIVATED BY RACIAL OR
OTHER BIAS
• WHITE-COLLAR CRIME
– THOSE COMMITTED BY PEOPLE OF
HIGH SOCIAL POSITION IN THE
COURSE OF THEIR OCCUPATIONS
• CORPORATE CRIME
– CRIMES COMMITTED BY
CORPORATIONS AGAINST
EMPLOYEES AND CONSUMERS
6
VIOLENCE IN SOCIETY
– INSTITUTIONAL VIOLENCE (war in Iraq)
– ANTI-INSTITUTIONAL VIOLENCE (the Iraqis blowing up humans)
– TERRORIST OR FREEDOM FIGHTER?
CRIMINAL VIOLENCE
VIOLENT CRIME – (crime against the person) is crime
that involves violence or the threat of violence
MURDER/HOMICIDE – the intentional killing of one
person by another (abortion, stem cells, capital punishment)
MANSLAUGHTER – the unintentional killing of one
person by another
64% of all murders committed w/ guns
90% who commit murder are male
76% of victims are male
VARIETIES OF HOMOCIDE
MASS MURDER – the intentional killing of 4 or more
people at one time and place (very small % of overall annual
U.S. murder rate of ~15,000)
MASS MURDERERS are usually men, collectors of
firearms, and many are students or ex-students
SERIAL MURDER – the killing of several people by
one offender over the course of a month or more
SERIAL MURDERERS are usually men, many are found to
be mentally ill – very very small % of total annual
murder rate
FORCIBLE RAPE
The “carnal knowledge” of a female forcibly and
against her will”
• Children are also at risk of sexual abuse including
forcible rape
• Statutory rape is also an important issue --- the age
of consent varies from state to state (in GA the age of
consent is 15 years or older)
• FBI reports nearly 100,000 rapes each year in U.S. –
estimates are that twice that are committed
• Date Rape / Marital Rape / Male-Male Rape
FAMILY VIOLENCE
Family Violence – physical, emotional, or sexual
abuse of one family member by another
• Battered Child Syndrome – pattern of physical or
psychological injury to a child caused by by the
actions or neglect of another person(s)
• Estimated 3 million cases reported annually (2/3 of
which prove to be false or misreported
• Predictors of child abuse include: very young child
• Date Rape / Marital Rape / Male-Male Rape
THE “TYPICAL” CRIMINAL
AGE
– PERSONS BETWEEN THE AGES OF 15 AND 24
• 14% OF POPULATION
• 39.1% OF ARRESTS FOR VIOLENT CRIME
• 46.9% OF PROPERTY CRIMES
• GENDER
– 69.6% OF PROPERTY CRIMES AND 82.7% OF ALL VIOLENT
CRIMES ARE COMMITTED BY MALES
• SOCIAL CLASS AND TYPES OF CRIME
– LOWER CLASSES COMMIT MORE “STREET CRIME” THAN THE
UPPER CLASSES, BUT THE UPPER CLASSES OFTEN COMMIT
MORE SOPHISTICATED CRIMES INVOLVING MORE MONEY
• RACE AND ETHNICITY
– MINORITY GROUPS MEMBERS, ESPECIALLY YOUNG BLACK
MALES, ARE DISPORPORTIONATELY INCARCERATED
• REASONS INCLUDE
– RACISM, THE OPPORTUNITY STRUCTURE, POLICE TARGETTING
(Macionis, 2003)
What About Race
BLACKS REPRESENT 12.4% OF THE
POPULATION, BUT ACCOUNT FOR NEARLY
ONE-THIRD (31.3%) OF ALL ARRESTS FOR
PROPERTY CRIMES AND 37.6% OF ALL
ARRESTS FOR VIOLENT CRIMES. WHY?
– RACISM DOES EXISTS
– RACE IS RELATED TO SOCIAL STANDING
– CRIMES OFTEN COMMITTED BY WHITES ARE
“UNREPORTABLE” (FBI UCR Crime Stats)
– CULTURAL VALUE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN
MINORITY GROUPS (MERTON’S STRAIN THEORY)
SOCIAL RESPONSES
TO VIOLENCE
• “THREE STRIKES” -- mandatory life in prison for
3rd time felony offenders
• Mandatory prison sentences for many drug
offenses, particularly when it involves violence
• Swelling numbers of persons incarcerated in U.S.
prisons and jails (in 1999 the U.S. had nearly 2 million in
jail, the highest number in our history)
• Huge increase in the numbers of police officers on
the streets (400,000 in ’90 to 650,000 in ’99)
•ZERO TOLERANCE – more aggressive policing
•RACIAL PROFILING – erosion of privacy???
Defining Drugs
Any chemical substance other than food or
water that affects the mind or body.
• Psychoactive drugs / substances affect CNS and
alter consciousness & perceptions
• Common legal drugs include: aspirin, caffeine,
alcohol, nicotine,OTC (over the counter) & Rx drugs (Valium,
Xanax, Oxycodone, Ritalin, Viagra and thousands
more).
• Common illegal drugs include: marijuana,
cocaine, ecstasy, heroin, LSD, crank, etc.
ALL DRUGS, LEGAL OR NOT, ARE
SOCIALLY CONSTRUCTED AS BEING
BENIFICIAL OR HARMFUL TO SOCIETY (society tells us what should be illegal)
Why Are People So
Attracted to Drugs?
Searching for pleasure, drugs make them
feel good (recreation)
 To relieve stress or tension or provide an
escape
 Peer pressure; rite of passage (conform)
 To enhance religious or mystical experiences
(spiritual / psychological)
 To relieve pain and symptom of illness
(therapeutic)
Use of Selected Drugs by the U.S. Population, 1979-1998
Legal vs. Illegal drugs
 Alcoholic beverages and tobacco are
considerably more common than
marijuana, heroin, and LSD
 Alcohol and tobacco cause more
deaths, sickness, violent crimes,
economic loss, and other social
problems than the use of all illegal
drugs!!!
Legal vs. Illegal drugs
Alcoholic beverages and tobacco are
considerably more common than
marijuana, heroin, and LSD
 Alcohol and tobacco cause more
deaths, sickness, violent crimes,
economic loss, and other social
problems than the use of all illegal
drugs!!!
Most commonly abused
illicit drugs
Narcotics
 Opium, morphine, codeine, and heroin
 Depressants
 Barbiturates, benzodiazepines,
methaqualone, alcohol (primarily Rx)
 Stimulants
 Cocaine, amphetamines, caffeine, tobacco
Most commonly abused
illicit drugs
Hallucinogens
 LSD, mescaline, peyote
 Cannabis
 Marijuana and hashish
 Inhalants/organic solvents
 Inhalants such as gasoline, airplane glue,
paint thinner, as well as certain foods,
herbs, and vitamins
Major stimulants
All major stimulants cause increased
alertness, excitation, and euphoria;
thus these drugs are referred to as
“uppers.”
Summary of the effects of
amphetamines
Body
increase heartbeat
increase blood pressure
decreased appetite
increased breathing rate
inability to sleep
sweating
dry mouth
muscle twitching
convulsions
fever
chest pain
irregular heartbeat
death due to overdose
Mind
decreased fatigue
increased confidence
increased feeling of alertness
restlessness, talkativeness
increased irritability
fearfulness, apprehension
distrust of people
behavioral stereotypy
hallucination
psychosis
Cocaine
Over the past two decades, cocaine abuse
has become one of the greatest drug
concerns in the U.S.
 From 1978 to 1987, the U.S. experienced
the largest cocaine epidemic in history
 As recently as the early 1980s cocaine was
not believed to cause dependency
 Today, cocaine is known to be highly
addictive
 In the U.S., 1.5 million current users
Minor stimulants
Caffeine is the most frequently consumed
stimulant i the world.
- it is found in a number of beverages
- also found in some OTC medicines
 In the U.S., the average daily intake of
caffeine is equivalent to 3 cups of coffee
day.
What are narcotics?
The term narcotic currently refers to
naturally occurring substances derived
from the opium poppy and their
synthetic substitutes.
 These drugs are referred to as the opioid
(or opiate) narcotics because of their
association with opium.
What are narcotics?
 For the most part, the opioid narcotics
possess abuse potential, but they also
have important clinical value
(analgesic, antitussive).
 The term narcotic has been used to label
many substances, from opium to
marijuana to cocaine.
What are narcotics?
The principal side effects of the opioid
narcotics, besides their abuse potential,
include:
 Drowsiness
 Respiratory depression
 Nausea, vomiting, and constipation
 Inability to urinate
 Drop in blood pressure
Abuse, tolerance, dependence,
and withdrawal from opiods
All the opioid narcotic agents that activate
opioid receptors have abuse potential and
classified as a schedule drugs.
 An estimated 2.5 million people in the U.S
abuse heroin or other narcotics.
 Tolerance begins with the first dose of a
narcotic, but does not become clinically
evident until 2 to 3 weeks of frequent use.
The dimensions of drug
abuse
Drug abuse is the willful misuse of
either licit, or any use of illicit
drugs for recreation, perceived
necessity, or convenience.
Drug abuse often refers to an
intense misuse of drugs, often to
the point of addiction.
Myths About Drug
Dependence
Drug tolerance always leads to
significant withdrawal
If a drug does not produce
tolerance or withdrawal, you
cannot become dependent on it
Physiological dependence is the
major cause of drug addiction
Drug Dependence
Both physical and psychological factors
precipitate drug dependence
 Psychological dependence refers to the need
that a user may feel for continued use of a
drug so as to experience its effects
 Physical dependence refers to the need to
continue taking the drug to avoid
withdrawal symptoms, which often include
feelings of discomfort and illness.
What is Deviance?
Sociologically, deviance exists when 4
conditions are present:
– Something violates a social norm or
rule
– Attachment of label to person(s) who
broke rule
– Audience judges normative violation
– Likelihood of negative social reaction /
outcome as a result of normative
violation
SEXAND THE BODY
• SEX
– THE BIOLOGICAL DISTINCTIONS
BETWEEN FEMALES AND MALES
• PRIMARY SEXUAL TRATIS
– GENITALS
– ORGANS USED FOR REPRODUCTION
• SECONDARY SEXUAL TRAITS
– MUSCLE MASS
– AMOUNT OF BODY HAIR
– TONALITY OF VOICE
NOT SO CLEAR-CUT
HERMAPHRODITES
– POSSESSING SOME COMBINATION OF FEMALE
AND MALE GENITALIA
• TRANSSEXUALS
– PEOPLE WHO FEEL EMOTIONALLY LINKED TO ONE
SEX, BUT ARE BIOLOGICALLY TIED TO THE OTHER
– FEELING OFTEN EXPRESSED IS THAT SUCH A
PERSON IS “TRAPPED IN THE WRONG BODY”
• SHE-MALES
– MEN WHO DRESS AND LIVE THEIR LIVES AS FEMALES, BUT
WHO DO NOT UNDERGO SEX REASSIGNMENT
• SEX REASSIGNMENT
– SURGICAL PROCEDURE THAT CHANGES THE SEX OF A
PERSON
SEXUALITY AND HUMAN
DEVELOPMENT
• SEXUAL IDENTITY
– AWARENESS OF OURSELVES AS MALE AND
FEMALE
– HOW WE EXPRESS OUR SEXUALITY
• NORMS THAT GOVERN BEHAVIOR
• SEXUALITY IS MULTIDIMENSIONAL
– INCORPORATES PSYCHOLOGICAL,
BIOLOGICAL, AND SOCIOLOGICAL
COMPONENTS
– SEXUAL DESIRE
• WE LEARN ABOUT FEELINGS OF SATISFACTION
AND DISSATISFACTION DURING SEXUAL
EXPERIENCES
– SEXUAL RESPONSE
• EXPERIENCING PLEASURE OR ORGASM
WHY ENGAGE IN SEX?
AFFECTION AND COMMUNICATION
– FOR LOVERS, SEX AND TALK GO TOGETHER
• AROUSAL AND RECEPTIVITY
– PHYSICAL AROUSAL AND ADVANCES
• OBLIGATION AND PRESSURE
– DIFFERENT FEELINGS AND APPROACHES TO
HAVING SEX
• CURIOSITY
– FANTASIES AND EXPERIMENTATION
• CIRCUMSTANTIAL
– LOSS OF CONTROL FOR ONE REASON OR
ANOTHER
Sexual Orientation
SEXUAL ORIENTATION
– ONE’S PREFERENCE FOR PARTNERS
OF THE SAME OR OPPOSITE SEX;
HOW ONE SEEKS AND RECEIVES
SEXUAL PLEASURE
• HETEROSEXUAL
– ATTRACTION TO MEMBERS OF THE
OPPOSITE SEX
• HOMOSEXUAL
– ATTRACTION TO MEMBERS OF THE
SAME SEX
• BI-SEXUAL
– ATTRACTION TO BOTH SEXS
• A-SEXUAL
– NOT ATTRACTED TO EITHER SEX
STAGES IN HUMAN SEXUAL
DEVELOPMENT
NORMATIVE STAGE
• CHILDREN LEARN NORMS GOVERNING
APPROPRIATE SEXUAL BEHAVIORS
– INFORMATIONAL STAGE
• YOUNG PERSONS LEARN ABOUT SEXUAL
ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY
– BEHAVIORAL STAGE
• PERSONS ENGAGE IN SEXUAL ACTIVITIES
• INTERESTING TO NOTE:
– STUDIES CONSISTENTLY SHOW THAT
MOST PERSONS FAIL SEXUAL
KNOWLEDGE TESTS
CULTURAL ISSUES
SEXUAL PRACTICES ARE LINKED
TO CULTURAL TRADITIONS
– APPROACHES AND POSITIONS
– NOTIONS OF MODESTY
– RESTRICTIONS PLACED UPON
OPENNESS
• THE INCEST TABOO
– FOUND IN EVERY SOCIETY
– THE NORM FOBIDDING SEXUAL
RELATIONS BETWEEN CERTAIN
RELATIVES
• LAWS
– SEXUAL MORALITY DICTATED BY
STATE GOVERNMENT BODIES
• STATE ANTI-SODOMY LAWS
THE REVOLUTION
THE LATE 1960’S
– THE REVOLUTION HAD COME OF AGE
• GENERAL ATTITUDES, THE PILL, WOMEN
– PREMARIAL SEX
• MEN AND WOMEN ARE ALMOST EQUAL IN THE PERCENT REPORTING
ENGAGING IN PREMARITAL SEX
• PREMARITAL SEX IS BROADLY ACCEPTED AMONG AMERICA’S YOUNG
– SEX AMONG ADULTS
• 1/3RD HAVE SEX A FEW TIMES A YEAR OR NOT AT ALL
• 1/3RD HAVE SEX ONCE TO A FEW TIMES A MONTH
• 1/3RD HAVE SEX WITH A PARTNER TWO OR MORE TIMES A WEEK
– EXTRAMARITAL SEX
• 75% OF MEN AND 90% OF WOMEN REMAIN FAITHFUL DURING THE
MARRIAGES
• THE COUNTERREVOLUTION
– THE CONSERVATIVE MOVEMENT THAT IS OFTEN TIED TO
“TRADITIONAL FAMILY VALUES”
RESEARCH INTO SEX
SUBJECT MATTER IS RELATIVE
– SOCIAL NORMS GOVERNING WHAT IS
“NORMAL” TODAY MAY BE OUTDATED
WITHIN MONTHS OR A FEW YEARS
• SUBJECT IS SENSITIVE IN NATURE
– VOLUNTEERS MAY BE QUITE
DIFFERENT FROM AN “AVERAGE”
PERSON
• COSTS OF RANDOM SAMPLING
– SAMPLES ARE OFTEN CONVENIENCE
STYLE AS FOUND IN MAGAZINES
• UNRECOGNIZED GROUP BIAS
– WORKING CLASS AND INNER-CITY
YOUTH ARE OFTEN OVERSTUDIED
Sexual Orientation
ROOTS OF SEXUAL ORIENTATION
– MOUNTING BIOLOGICAL INFORMATION
• SEXUAL ORIENTATION MAY NOT BE A “CHOICE”
– CANNOT DISCOUNT SOCIAL INFLUENCES
• IF LEARNED, THEN CAN IT BE UNLEARNED?
• HETEROSEXUALITY
– “HETERO:” THE OTHER OF TWO
• HOMOSEXUALITY
– “HOMO:” THE SAME
– HOMOPHOBIA: AN IRRATIONAL FEAR
• BISEXUALITY
– STRONG ATTRACTION TO BOTH SEXES
CONTROVSERSIES
TEEN PREGNANCY
– HIGHEST RATES OF ALL INDUSTRIALIZED
POWERS
– INCREASED RATES OF SEX EDUCATION
COURSES IN SCHOOLS
• PRONOGRAPHY
– ANY MATERIAL THAT CAUSES SEXUAL
AROUSAL
– DIFFICULTIES WITH DEFINING WHAT IS AND
WHAT IS NOT MORAL IN COMMUNITIES
– LINKED TO VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN?
• ABORTION
PROSTITUTION
THE SELLING OF SEXUAL
SERVICES, OFTEN CALLED THE
“WORLD’S OLDEST
PROFESSION”
– SOCIAL AND CULTURAL TIES
• STRONGEST IN COUNTRIES WHERE
– WOMEN’S STATUS IS LOW
– WOMEN’S ROLES ARE DEVALUED
– OPPORTUNITIES ARE RESTRICTED
– A “VICTIMLESS CRIME?”
• TYPES OF PROSTITUTION
– “CALL GIRLS”
– WORKERS IN CONTROLLED
PALORS
– “STREET WALKERS”
SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE
STRUCTURAL-FUNCTIONALISM
– NEED TO REGULATE SEXUAL BEHAVIOR
• SYMBOLIC-INTERACTIONISM
– THE SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF SEXUALITY
• SOCIAL-CONFLICT
– PROSTITUTION, ENFORCEMENT OF THE LAW,
AND WHO GETS CHARGED
• FEMINIST THEORY
– SEXUALITY MAY ULTIMATELY LEAD TO THE
DEGRADATION OF WOMEN IN SOCIETY
• QUEER THEORY
– CHALLENGING THE HETEROSEXUAL BIAS IN
SOCIOLOGY AND SOCIETY
Ways People Study Statistics
People select thier data (Data may not be the whole truth)

People intepret thier data (as if numbers can only mean one thing)

People use graphics to spin the truth (manipulating timeframes on graphs)
Crimes against property
Up in 1980, larceny, burlary then theft.

burglary
larceny theft (taking direct from person)

motor theft

arson
crimes again person
Assault, Robbery, Rape, Murder

Aggravated Assault
Rape
Robbery
Expected to go to jail
1 in 3 blacks
1 in 6 hisp
1 in 17 whites
Murder by hand gun
US top

NZ low
Risk of Crime
Above avg along the borders
Death Ro
TX is high, california, florida
Radical View on Crime
Radical - Ecomonic inequality, promotes criminal activity.

Sol: Crime will never be controlled unltil class differences cease to exist.
Liberal View on Crime
Lack of jobs

Sol: Govt need to use money to build more opport not prison
Conservative View on Crime
Weaking relgion and family values,

Sol: Strenghten family values
# of murders from selected city
Atlanta high

Seattle low
Spending on drug war
17.7 billion because of law enforcement,etc.
Radical view on Drugs
Drug laws in favor of powerful

So. expand the wealth
Libarl View on Drugs
Suffering of poeple from any problems

Sol expand economic oppot, govt treatment programs.
Conservative view on Drugs
Poor moral stucture to young

So. Active parenting.
2 or more partners
1933 to 42
Wom 15 and Men 56

1953 to 62
Wom 48 Men 62
History of Drug Laws
65 - Drug Abuse Control Amendment (Dept of Health to control amphetamines, etc.)

66 The last dry state went wet (Miss)

70 - Controlled Substance Act (certain drugs under Federal juris and now had restrictions

72 - Marijuania downgraded to misdemnour. Oregon first state to do this.
Deviance Exist when 4 conditions are present
Violation of social norm

attahment of label to the person that broke the norm

society judges norm violations

negative social reaction
ABC of Devianc
Attitudes - (cognitive deviance)

Behaviors - actions that attract condemnation

Conditions- physical traits or characteristcs that would make someone the target of disapproval.
Theories of Socialization
Piaget - Logical thought is not innat but acquired as children move through stages of adulthood.
Cognitive Development
Cognition - How people think and understand.

Stages:

Sensorimotor stage - understanding

preoperational stage - use of language.

concrete operation - perceptions of causal connections.

formal operational stage - abstract thinking.
Marx Conflict
Beleived that stratification would always benefit a few at the expense of the many.

A person either controls money or works for those that do.

socialism would replace capitalism.
Weber
Rationality
Bureaucracy
Rational Social Org
Social Institutions that see to meeting the demands of a growing and complex society.
Rationalization
Traditional society - largely unquestioned, inherited beliefs and tradtions dominate people lives and actions.
Rational Society
social existence is organized to promote the most effiecent means of accomplishing a task.

Necessary for the devleopment of complex, techn, science, bureaurcacy and lrg org.
Social Economic Class
Webers Idea

Complex INterplay between class status and power

Low status consistency -

Social conflict can be viewed as more complex.
Religious Belief and Cogn Deviacne
Romans and Christians in the crusifixtions.

Burning of the Witches

Islam vs. Christanity

Snake handlers.
History of Drug Laws
65 - Drug Abuse Control Amendment (Dept of Health to control amphetamines, etc.)

66 The last dry state went wet (Miss)

70 - Controlled Substance Act (certain drugs under Federal juris and now had restrictions

72 - Marijuania downgraded to misdemnour. Oregon first state to do this.
Deviance Exist when 4 conditions are present
Violation of social norm

attahment of label to the person that broke the norm

society judges norm violations

negative social reaction
ABC of Devianc
Attitudes - (cognitive deviance)

Behaviors - actions that attract condemnation

Conditions- physical traits or characteristcs that would make someone the target of disapproval.
Theories of Socialization
Piaget - Logical thought is not innat but acquired as children move through stages of adulthood.
Cognitive Development
Cognition - How people think and understand.

Stages:

Sensorimotor stage - understanding

preoperational stage - use of language.

concrete operation - perceptions of causal connections.

formal operational stage - abstract thinking.
Marx Conflict
Beleived that stratification would always benefit a few at the expense of the many.

A person either controls money or works for those that do.

socialism would replace capitalism.
Weber
Rationality
Bureaucracy
Rational Social Org
Social Institutions that see to meeting the demands of a growing and complex society.
Rationalization
Traditional society - largely unquestioned, inherited beliefs and tradtions dominate people lives and actions.
Rational Society
social existence is organized to promote the most effiecent means of accomplishing a task.

Necessary for the devleopment of complex, techn, science, bureaurcacy and lrg org.
Social Economic Class
Webers Idea

Complex INterplay between class status and power

Low status consistency -

Social conflict can be viewed as more complex.
Religious Belief and Cogn Deviacne
Romans and Christians in the crusifixtions.

Burning of the Witches

Islam vs. Christanity

Snake handlers.