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48 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What made exploration possible?
astralabe, compass, ships, desire to explore, competition for land, Europe's overpopulation. Also, the discovery of "cool things" elsewhere (silk, jewels)
1492- "first" to discover America
Spanish and Native American Interactions
*South America
*Native Americans were enslaved
*died of smallpox, disease
*Spanish exploration is devastating
*Some missionaries in California
French and Native American Interactions
*Basically a trade network
*very cooperative with the Native Americans
*Mariied w/in Native Americans (Sacajewa)
*NOT colonizing (basically economic)
English and Native American Interactions
*didn't accept them into society
*killed them during Jackson's age (Trail of Tears)
1607- was set up on joint stock companies.

governor- John Smith. Then, John Rolfe.
government- Rep. Democracy

*formed the House of Burgesses- 1st elected assembly
*starving period (1609-1610)
*1619- first African slaves arrived
1620. seperatists- plymouth
*governor- William Bradford
*Mayflower Compact
*direct democracy (only men vote)
*Formed a basis for education (ABCs- bible) everything comes back to religion.
Mass. Bay
Non-Seperatists (Maine)
*governor- John Winthrop
*Rep Government- bicameral (two houses)
*not tolerant of other religions (ex- Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson)
Joint Stock Company
A company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company’s profits and debts.
Plymouth. Wanted to seperate themselves from the Church of England.
Mass. Bay. Wanted to reform the Church of England.
William Bradford
A Pilgrim, the second governor of the Plymouth colony, 1621-1657. He developed private land ownership and helped colonists get out of debt. He helped the colony survive droughts, crop failures, and Indian attacks.
John Winthrop
1629 - He became the first governor of the Massachusetts Bay colony, and served in that capacity from 1630 through 1649. A Puritan with strong religious beliefs. He opposed total democracy, believing the colony was best governed by a small group of skillful leaders. He helped organize the New England Confederation in 1643 and served as its first president.
Mayflower Compact
1620 - The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony.
Virginia Company
- In 1606 the Virginia Company was founded by a group of merchants and gentry who felt they could reap great profits from colonizing America [it could allow them to find precious metals and new trade routes]. The Virginia Company was a joint-stock venture [it was funded by contributions from many small investors].
Virginia House of Burgesses
1619- the first legislative body in colonial America.
Jamestown (VA Company of London)
King decided. set up by a charter. (N&S Carolina)
person decided. charter from a kind to a specific person. (ex-William Penn- Pennslyvania)
Act of Toleration
1649 - Ordered by Lord Baltimore after a Protestant was made governor of Maryland at the demand of the colony's large Protestant population. The act guaranteed religious freedom to all Christians.
Bacon's Rebellion
1676 - Nathaniel Bacon and other western Virginia settlers were angry at Virginia Governor Berkley for trying to appease the Doeg Indians after the Doegs attacked the western settlements. The frontiersmen formed an army, with Bacon as its leader, which defeated the Indians and then marched on Jamestown and burned the city. The rebellion ended suddenly when Bacon died of an illness.
Headright System
Stated that every new arrival paying their way could get 50 acres of land. Although this in itself encouraged wealthier people to move to the colonies, it also allowed the already established planters to get labor and land at once.
Halfway Covenant
Said that children of full members of a church could be counted as "1/2 members"
New England Confederation
1643 - Formed to provide for the defense of the four New England colonies, and also acted as a court in disputes between colonies.
King Phillip's War
The American need for land caused colonists to expand further into Indian Territory. Upset by this, King Phillip began attacking settlements in June 1675. But, with the Mohawk's help (enemies of the Algonquins), the colonists finally won.

It’s important to note that the victory came w/a cost – 1/10th of the male population was killed or wounded, towns were devastated, and the economy didn’t reach pre-1675 levels until the American Revolution.
William Penn
1681- William Penn received a land grant from King Charles II, and used it to form a colony that would provide a haven for Quakers. His colony, Pennsylvania, allowed religious freedom.
"The Holy Experiment"
William Penn’s term for the government of Pennsylvania, which was supposed to serve everyone and provide freedom for all.
Mercantilism was the economic policy of Europe in the 1500s through 1700s. The government exercised control over industry and trade with the idea that national strength and economic security comes from exporting more than is imported. Possession of colonies provided countries both with sources of raw materials and markets for their manufactured goods. Great Britain exported goods and forced the colonies to buy them.
Navigation Acts
British regulations designed to protect British shipping from competition. Said that British colonies could only import goods if they were shipped on British-owned vessels and at least 3/4 of the crew of the ship were British.
Dominion of New England
1686 - The British government combined the colonies of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, New Hampshire, and Connecticut into a single province headed by a royal governor (Andros). The Dominion ended in 1692, when the colonists revolted and drove out Governor Andros.
Slave Laws
Basically discribed how you can treat a slave. What one can and cannot do. (White's can't marry slaves)
Triangular Trade
The backbone of New England’s economy during the colonial period. Ships from New England sailed first to Africa, exchanging New England rum for slaves. The slaves were shipped from Africa to the Caribbean (this was known as the Middle Passage, when many slaves died on the ships). In the Caribbean, the slaves were traded for sugar and molasses. Then the ships returned to New England, where the molasses were used to make rum.
The Middle Passage
The portion of the triangular trade in which slaves were shipped from Africa to the Carribean (and many slaves died on the ships)
Roger Williams
1635 - He left the Massachusetts colony and purchased the land from a neighboring Indian tribe to found the colony of Rhode Island. Rhode Island was the only colony at that time to offer complete religious freedom.
Anne Hutchinson
She preached the idea that God communicated directly to individuals instead of through the church elders. She was forced to leave Massachusetts in 1637. Her followers (the Antinomianists) founded the colony of New Hampshire in 1639.
(Anne Hutchinson) The belief that God communicates directly, not through church elders.
Thomas Hooker
Clergyman, one of the founders of Hartford. Called "the father of American democracy" because he said that people have a right to choose their magistrates.
Funamental Orders of Connecticut
1639- Set up a unified government for the towns of the Connecticut area (Windsor, Hartford, and Wethersfield). First constitution written in America.
Salutary Neglect
Prime Minister Robert Walpole’s policy in dealing with the American colonies. He was primarily concerned with British affairs and believed that unrestricted trade in the colonies would be more profitable for England than would taxation of the colonies.
De Crevecour
What is an American? Described the characteristics that made up an American.
What are the characteristics that made up an American.
land of opertunity, farmer, stereotypes for men and women
Population Growth
improvment in nutrition, people are living, not as many diseases, more and more immigrants
Family Life
In the Chesapeake, the predominance of males, the high mortality rate, and the incidence of servitude led to few, small, short-lived families. In New England, by contrast, people moved to the colonies already in family units and there was consequently a more even male: female ratio, which led to numerous, large [it was healthier there] and longer-lived [they created grandparents] families. Parents had far more impact on their children’s lives, as they actually lived to see them grow up.
Republican Motherhood
Mother stays at home to teach the sons how to be virtuous, voting citizens
The Great Awakening
The Great Awakening was a sudden outbreak of religious fervor that swept through the colonies. One of the first events to unify the colonies.
Johnathan Edwards
"Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God"

Part of the Great Awakening, Edwards gave gripping sermons about sin and the torments of Hell.
George Whitefield
Credited with starting the Great Awakening, also a leader of the "New Lights."
Peter Zenger
Zenger published articles critical of British governor William Cosby. He was taken to trial, but found not guilty. The trial set a precedent for freedom of the press in the colonies.