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53 Cards in this Set

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Universalists
Seek to identify how culture affects basic principles of human behavior consisted across culture.
Absolutists
Like Universalists, seek "absolute truths" in human behavior.
Relativists
Human behavior cannot be understood outside the culture, individual's psychology within their culture, no laws of human behavior.
Race
People distinguished by certain similar or genetic physical characteristics/ social category of a particular experience shared by people.
Ethnicity
Shared experience of people with common ancestral origin, language, traditions, religion, and geographic territory.
Power Distance
Members of society accept that power in institutions is distributed unequally.
Collectivism
Behavior based on the concerns for others and the care for traditions, values, and group norms.
Individualsim
Complex behavior based on concerns for oneself and one's immediate family.
Interdependent Self-Concept
Individual values the preservation of harmonious relations with key people in life. Attention to others, fitting in and maintaining relationships with people.
Independent Self-Concept
Independent agents and place value on concepts like freedom and self-determination, attend to themselves by inner attributes.
Structural-Functional View
Society as a complex system for stability. Society demands obedience, cultural norms and values become important. Morals restrain needs and desires of members.
Social-Conflict View
Economic factors cause human behavior. Soceity is divided into owners of resources and the majority without access to power. Each class has their own beliefs, values, norms etc. while the ruling class creates laws, eductaion, values, religion, and arts.
Ecocultural Approach
Settings affect the individual, human behavior is understood between individuals and environment. Microsystem: face to face interaction Mesosystem: linkage between two or more environments Exosystem: indirect impact Macrosystem: customs and beliefs valued
Ecocultural Model
Ecological context includes the economic activity of populations like the presence/absence of food. quality of nutrition, heat/cold, and population density. Sociopolitical context the extent to which people participate in global and local decisions like gov't organizations.
Measurement Scales
Nominal: a categorical description of teh variable Ordinal: each score is a rank order
Interval: indicates some amount with a unit of measurement separating each score
Ratio: the true amount of the present variable
Correlation Coefficient
A reltionship between two or more variables. Range from
-1 to 1, higher value= stronger relationship. x increases, y decreases + & vice versa -
Qualities of Experiments
-Experimental Control: prevents other factors than those being studied to affect the outcome
-Randomization: random selection of subjects
-Manipulation of the independent variable
Advantages of Experiments over Research Methods
-Random Assignment: participants assigned to experimental coniditions so that each person has an equal probablitity of being assigned to a treatment group, frees from a third variable
-Temporal Priority: cause leads to an effect
Variables
Independent: conditions that are controlled
Dependent: expected to change under the influence of independent variable
Content Analysis
Research method that organizes and summarizes the manifest (said or written) and the latent (meaning of what is said and written). Usually in interviews, tv, newspapers, etc
Heuristics
Mental shortcuts that reduce complex and time consuming tasks to more simple strategies.
-Representative: Judging the likelihood that something belongs to a particular category.
-Availability: The process of drawing on instances that are easily accessible or available from memory.
Fundamental Attribution Error
A bias in attempting to determine the causes of people's behavior that involves overestimating the influences of their personality tratis, and underestimating the influence of their particular situations.
-ingroup success: personality and outgroup success: situation vice versa for failure
Cross-Cultural Misattribution
Like the FAE based on the assumption that cultural effects are internal causes.
Piaget Stage of Cognitive Development
-Sensorimotor: infants learn about their interaction with their immediate environment
-Preoperational: children develop the foundation for language
-Concrete Operations: children learn logic volume, weight, and amount despite physical apperance
-Formal Operations: adolescents develop the ability to think abstractly
Aboriginal vs. Swiss Children- cultural differences of the rate of the development of these universal stages
Kohlberg Stages of Moral Development
Children and adults are able to make moral judgments from lower to higher stages, leading to cognitive development.
-Preconventional Level: child does not know moral standings #1 judgments based on a fear of punishment #2 pleasure vs. unwanted consequences
-Conventional Level: knows rules of morality #3 behavior is good if it is approved by significant other #4 existing laws determine moral vs. immoral
-Post Conventional: challenges the notion of morals in culture #5 moral behavior based on individual rights & social circumstances #6 moral conduct based on universal ethical principles that may rise above gov't
The rate of development is culturally dependent.
Gender Stereotypes
International consensus across many cultures in agreement in the psychological characterisitcs: men - stronger more active, adventruous, confident, serious & women- cautious, modest, frivolous
Race & IQ Tests
IQ tests a person's cognivitive ability (intelligence) in relation to age. 20's ranking: Asian Amnericans, Europen Americans, Hispanic Americans, African Americans
Unassuming Bias
Tendency to explain personal success as a result of external factors such as luck or help, and failure as a result of one's personal mistakes.
-Asians attribute success to themselves less frequently in comparison to failure.
Conformity
A form of social influence in which individuals change their attitudes, behavior, to adhere to a group's social norms.
-Normative Influence: people conform to be likes... compliance= publicly acting in accord with social pressures while privately disagreeing
-Information Influence: conform to be right... acceptance= acting and believing in accord with social pressure
Social Power
The ability or capactiy to exercise control, authority. Individuals in low social power and personal power are more likely to be pessimistic about their own life, status of their country and the past/present/future. More empathy for members of high-power groups.
Group Polarization
Tendency of like-minded group members to shift, as a result of a group discussion, toward more extremem positions than they intially held.
-Risky Shift: groups make more riskky decisions after discussion
-Causes of this: normative influence= shift opinions to be liked by the group & informational influence= new persuasive arguments for position
Relative Deprivation
The feeling that one's own situation is not improving as fast as that of others.
-Egoistic= self vs. group
-Fraternal= own group vs. other group
Minimal Group Paradigm
Arbitrary basis for group membership creates an in-group and out-group and no interaction among members
-Egoistic= self vs. group
-Fraternal= own group vs. other group
Social Identity Theory
Divides the world into us and them, strives for positive self-concept that depends on how one's group is evaluated. In-group bias favor on group and out-group derogation to put down other groups.
-Minority groups like the Navajo a low-statues perceives social injustice in school, they do not have the same opporutnity to achieve wider = underachievement.
Contact Hypothesis
The expectation that prejudice and stereotyping between social groups can be reduced by allowing contact between groups.
- Conditions necessary for contact to reduce prejudice: acquaintance potential, equal status, cooperation vs. competition, intimate vs. superficial contact, normative support, & need satisfaction.
Not a guaranteed remedy must pay attention to conditions. People tend to function in groups like theirs, and make no effort to go out of their way to meet and interact with others.
Stereotype Threat
When a fear of being judged by or perhaps conforming to a negative stereotype effectively leads to poor performance and confirmation of a stereotype.
-African Americns: intellectual ability vs. non-intellectual
-Women: gender relevant math vs. non-gender relevant
-Asian American Women: gender relevant math vs. non-gender relevant
Controlled Processes of Stereotypes
Automatic: occurs unintentionally and unconsciously
-automatic activation: both low and high prejudice people are vulnerable, they differ in endorsement of stereotypes
Controlled: intentional and under the control of the individual
Entrapment in Social Conflict
Process in which a party pursuing a goal over a period of time expends more costs than seems justifiable by external standards.
Acculturation
Cultural change resulting from contact between 2 autonomous and independent cultural groups. Usually more change in the nondominant group than the dominant group.
-Adjustment Process:Initial Contact= differences +
Disintegration= differences have impact
Reintegration= reject new culture
Autonomy= differences accepted
Independence= differences valued
Acculturation Strategies
-Separation: maintain cultural identity and characteristics, but no relationship with dominant group
-Assimilation: no cultural identity and characteristics but manintains relationship with dominant group
-Marginalization: no cultural identity or characteristics and no relationship with dominant group
Culture Shock
Initial reaction of adjustment to a new culture and new life, known as acculturative stress, defined as a set of complex psychological experiences, usually unpleasant and disruptive.
-Symptoms: nostalgia, disorientation and loss of control, dissatisfaction over language barriers, loss of habits and lifestlye, perceived differences, perceived as value differences
Cross-Cultural Recognition of Facial Expression
People across cultures can easily recognize basic emotions, by using the same muscle groups to exercise their feelings.
-Facial mimicry that occurs when we observe the expressive behaviors of others.
-Not always linked to emotional states.
-Smiles are considered to be submissive all over. Direct gaze is a sign of an aggressive challenge. Gaze avoidance is a diminished threat. Gaze exchange is a friendly social exchange, cultures vary in tolerance.
Feeling Rules & Display Rules
Feeling Rules: particular cultural rules about how to feel in particular situations
Display Rules: rules of emotional expression are acquried primarily during socialization like restrining emotional expression
-gender differences
Achievement Motivation
A need that directs people to constantly strive for excellence and success, influence, and accomplishment.
-Social Norms: Research shows that countries where children's folktales reflect high-achievement motivation there is also high economic growth and entreprenual activity.
-Low status mobility or cultures where status is ascribed rather than attained leads to low achievement motivation. Found among African American school children.
-High achievemnt motivation: entrepreneurship and associated with high power distance, high individualism, low uncertainty avoidance, and high masculinity.
-Collectivist: connect with other people
-Individualist: directed to the attainment of personal goals
Effect of Culture on the Diagnosis of Mental Disorders
To treat and diagnose an indidvidual, one should know the client's reference groups and ways that culture is relevant.
-The culture identity, ethnic group, religious groups, cultural explanations of individual's illness, cultural interpretations of social stressor and supports, cultural elements of relationshiip between the individual and clinician.
Culture-Bound Syndromes
-Set of psychological phenomena of particular interest to psychologist. Most as confined to a particular culture or set of related geographically proximal cultures.
central symptoms present in all cultures
-peripheral symptoms are culture specific, disorders rooted in basic biological functions have almost identical symptoms across cultures
Schizophrenia
-Disorder characterized by the presence of delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, disorganized behavior these are universal symptoms.
-Expressions of disorder: Paranoid from CIA, Technologically Advanced by hearing voices from satellite, Less Developed by hearing voices from evil spirits.
-Ethiopian families prefer to care for family members. In developing countries people with it show higher rates of recovery and better functioning, because there is less social labeling and disorders may be different.
-Blacks have a higher rate than whites.
-Collectivists have better prognosis.
-Individualsts have fewere signs of improvement.
Cultural Differences in Depression
-One of the worlds major health and social problems due to biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors, especially the west.
-Appears to occur similarily in African Americans, Hispanics, and European Americans, some ethnic variation- low prevelance of depression in Asian Americans and psychological vs. physical expression especcially Asians.
-No universal coneptualization and the meaning varies.
Branch Out
A violence prevention strategy of group counseling for kids.
-personal empowerment, pro-social skills, career awareness, diversity appreciation, and community building
Negotiation Strategies
-Negotiation: two parties of their representatives try to work out a solution that is acceptable to both parties.
-Adjudication/Arbitration: third party acts as a decision maker for both parties
-Mediation: an agreed upon third party tries to facilitate the process of conflict resolution for the disrupting parties to arrive at a mutual agreement by reducing obstacles of communication, maximizing the explorations of alternatives, addressing the needs of everyone involved, and provide a model for the future.
International Incidence of Firearm Deaths
-U.S. highest firearm mortality rate and highest firearm suicide rate. Asia had the lowest firearm mortaility rate.
-Hi-income countries= low firearm homicide rate relative to upper middle income.
International Human Rights Law
United Nations, no mattter where and what gov't people have the right to pursue their universal moral and civil freedoms. Protects the full range of human rights required for people to have full free, safe, secure, and healthy life. All basic necessities must be attained. Laws are established to the cultural spheres.
Transcultural Ethnic Validity Perspective
-Provides an integrated understanding of individuals, their communities, ethniciteis, and culture. By a basis for understanding individual and collective psychological issues in people's lives, both intraculturally and interculturally, provides a more adequate foundation.
-By participating as a psychologist, or in the community with or against it, and a part of the world beyond... a decentering self-concept.