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36 Cards in this Set

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Albert Bandura
Social learning theory: Theory that emphasizes learning through observation of others

Social cognitive theory: Theory that adds concerns with cognitive factors such as beliefs, self-perceptions, and expectation to social learning theory

Social cognitive theory distinguishes between enactive and vicarious learning

Enactive learning is learning by doing and experiencing the consequences of your actions (self-regulation of behavior, goal directed behavior, self-monitoring)

Vicarious learning is learning by observing others

Four elements of observational learning
1.Attention
2.Retention
3.Production
4.Motivation and reinforcement
Jerome Bruner
Promoted the concept of discovery learning by encouraging teachers to give students more opportunity to learn on their own.
Discovery learning encourages students to think for themselves and discover how knowledge is constructed
Discovery learning is learning in which students construct an understanding on their own

Related to Piaget and Dewey’s views
John Dewey
Viewed problem solving according to the scientific method as the proper way to think and the most effective teaching method
Schools should teach learners how to solve problems and inquire/interact with their natural and social environments
Every learner attempts to explore and understand his/her environment
Jean Piaget
Organization – ongoing process of arranging information and experience into mental systems or categories
Schemes – mental systems of categories and experiences
Adaptation – adjustment to the environment
Adaptation – adjustment to the environment
Assimilation – fitting new information into existing schemes
Accommodation – altering existing schemes or creating new ones in response to new information
Equilibration – search for mental balance between cognitive schemes and information from the environment
Operations – actions a person carries out by thinking them through instead of literally performing the actions
Four stages of cognitive development
Sensorimotor – 0-2 yrs – involves the senses and motor activity
Preoperational – 2-7 yrs – stage before a child masters logical mental operations
Concrete operational – 7-11 yrs – mental tasks tied to concrete objects and situations
Formal operational – 11-adult – mental tasks involving abstract thinking and coordination of a number of variables
Goal of education should be to help children learn how to learn
Importance of developmentally appropriate education
Individuals construct their own understandings
Value of play
Lev Vygotsky
Sociocultural theory – emphasizes role in development of cooperative dialogues between children and more knowledgeable members of society
Children learn the culture of their community (ways of thinking & behaving) through interactions
Zone of Proximal Development – phase at which a child can master a task if given appropriate help and support
Scaffolding – support for learning and problem solving. The support could be anything that allows the student to grow in independence as a learner
Private talk
Howard Gardner
Theory of Multiple Intelligences
Linguistic (verbal)
Musical,
Spatial,
Logical-mathematical
Bodily-kinesthetic (movement)
Interpersonal (understanding others)
Intrapersonal (understanding self)
Naturalist
Abraham Maslow
Humans have a hierarchy of needs ranging from lower-level needs for survival and safety to higher-level needs for intellectual achievement and finally self-actualization
Self-actualization – fulfilling one’s potential
1.need for self-actualization
2.esteem needs
3.love and belonging needs
4.safety needs
5.physiological needs
B.F. Skinner
Operant conditioning – a form of learning whereby a response increases in frequency as a result of its being followed by reinforcement
When behaviors are followed by desirable consequences, they tend to increase in frequency
When behaviors do not produce results, they typically decrease and may even disappear altogether
Erik Erikson
Eight stages of psychosocial development
Developmental crisis – conflict between a positive alternative and a potentially unhealthy alternative
The way in which the individual resolves each crisis will have a lasting effect on that person’s self-image and view of society
Erik Erikson’s 8 Stages
Trust vs. mistrust
Autonomy vs. shame/doubt
Initiative vs. guilt
Industry vs. inferiority
Identity vs. role confusion
Intimacy vs. isolation
Generativity vs. stagnation
Ego integrity vs. despair
Lawrence Kohlberg
Moral dilemmas – situations in which no choice is clearly and indisputably right
Stages of moral reasoning
Stages of moral reasoning
Level 3 – Postconventional Moral Reasoning – social contract and universal ethics
Moral reasoning – the thinking process involved in judgments about questions of right and wrong
Level I – Preconventional Moral Reasoning – judgment is based own person needs and others’ rules
Level 2 – Conventional Moral Reasoning – judgment is based on others; approval, family expectations, traditional values, laws of society, and loyalty to country
Carol Gilligan
Proposed a different sequence of moral development, an Ethic of Care
Individuals move from a focus on self-interest to moral reasoning based on commitment to specific individuals and relationships, and then to the highest level of morality based on the principles of responsibilities and care for all people
Constructivism
a theoretical perspective that proposes that learners construct a body of knowledge from their experiences—knowledge that may or may not be an accurate representation of external reality.
Metacognition
Metacognition – One’s knowledge and beliefs about one’s own cognitive processes, and one’s resulting attempts to regulate those cognitive processes to maximize learning and memory
Knowledge about our own thinking processes
Scemata
Schemata (plural for schema) – In contemporary cognitive psychology, an organized body of knowledge about a specific topic
Basic structures for organizing information, concepts
Transfer
Transfer – A phenomenon whereby something that an individual has learned at one time affects how the individual learns or performs in a later situation
Influence of previously learned material on new material
Bloom's Taxonomy
Bloom’s Taxonomy – a taxonomy in which six learning tasks, varying in degrees of complexity, are identified for the cognitive domain:
Knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation
Intrinsic Motivation
Intrinsic motivation – the internal desire to perform a particular task; motivation associated with activities that are their own reward
Extrinsic Motivation
Extrinsic motivation – motivation promoted by factors external to the individual and unrelated to the task being performed; motivation created by external factors (reward or punishment)
Learning Styles
Learning styles – characteristic approaches to learning and studying
Areas of Exceptionality in Learning
Visual and perceptual difficulties
Special physical or sensory challenges
Learning disabilities
Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD); Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Functional mental retardation
EBD
Legislation and institutional responsibilities relating to exceptional students
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
Inclusion
Mainstreaming
Least Restrictive Environment
IEP – what’s included?
Approaches for accommodating various learning styles, intelligences, or exceptionalities
Differentiated Teaching
Alternative Assessments
Testing Modifications
Student learning is influenced by:
Individual experiences
Individual talents
Prior learning
Language
Culture
Family
Community Values
Considerations in teaching:
Multicultural backgrounds
Age-appropriate knowledge and behavior
The student culture at the school
Family backgrounds
Linguistic patterns and differences
Cognitive patterns and differences
Social and emotional issues
Correlational Relationship
the extent to which two variables are related to each other, such that when one variable increases, the other either increases or decreases in a somewhat predictable manner
Causal Relationship
explains why behaviors occurs
Learned Helplessness
a general belief that one is incapable of accomplishing tasks and has little or no control of the environment
Self-efficacy
the belief that one is capable of executing certain behaviors or reaching certain goals
Reinforcement
the act of following a particular response with a reinforcer and thereby increasing the frequency of that response
Positive Reinforcement
a consequence that brings about the increase of a behavior through the presentation (rather than removal) of a stimulus.
Negative Reinforcement
a consequence that brings about the increase of a behavior through the removal (rather than presentation) of a stimulus.
Shaping
a process of reinforcing successively closer and closer approximations of a desired terminal behavior
Extinction
In classical conditioning, the eventual disappearance of a conditioned response as a result of the conditioned stimulus being repeatedly presented alone
In operant conditioning, the eventual disappearance of a response that is no longer being reinforced
Punishment
a consequence that decreases the frequency of the response it follows
Continuous Reinforcement
reinforcing a response every time it occurs
Intermittent Reinforcement
reinforcing a response only occasionally, with some occurrences of the response going unreinforced