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18 Cards in this Set

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What is Transcription?
The synthesis of RNA from DNA templates via RNA polymerases.
What is Translation?
The synthesis of protein from mRNA templates.
What is a Codon?
A 3-base sequence which specifies an amino acid.
What reads the codons within mRNA?
tRNA
What type of bonding holds together nucleic acid polymers?
Covalent
What composes each monomer unit within nucleic acid?
-Sugar
-Phosphate
-Nitrogenous base
What characterizes DNA from RNA?
Deoxyribose vs. Ribose
How is Deoxyribose different?
No hydroxyl group on the 2' carbon
What links the sugars in nucleic acids?
Phosphodiester bonds
Which are the Purine bases?
GAP - Guanine, Adenine
Which are the Pyrimidine bases?
CUT - Cytosine, Uracil, Thymine
Why is the 2'hydroxyl group in RNA important?
It allows for removal of introns and splicing of exons for mature RNA formation.
Why is nucleic acid polar?
Because each phosphodiester bridge has a neg charge.
What is a nucleoside?
A unit consisting of a base bonded to a sugar.
What is a nuclotide?
A nucleoside joined to one or more phosphate groups via phosphodiester linkage.
List the RNA nucleosides:
Adenosine
Guanosine
Cytidine
Uridine
List the DNA nucleosides:
Deoxyadenosine
Deoxyguanosine
Deoxycytidine
Thymidine
To which N and C are the links between bases and carbons in nucleosides?
Carbon 1 of the sugar is attached to N9 (purines) or N1 (pyrimidines)