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16 Cards in this Set

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What are the components of the central nervous system? What are the components of the peripheral nervous system?
CNS = spinal cord + brain
PNS = nerve fibers extending from the CNS
what are the primary functions of the cerebral cortex?
memory, attention, perceptual awareness, "thinking", language and consciousness.
give examples of somatosensory sensations.
touch or pressure, temperature (warm or cold), pain (including itch and tickle), and the sensations of muscle movement and joint position including posture, movement, and facial expression (collectively also called proprioception).
The PNS includes both sensory and motor components. Describe what each component is.
Sensory components detect environment signals and is formed by sensory receptor organs and afferent neurons. The motor components command effector organs to perform muscular or glandular activity.
What are the two main classifications within PNS?
Somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system.
Describe the somatic nervous system.
part of the peripheral nervous system associated with the voluntary control of body movements through the action of skeletal muscles, and also reception of external stimuli. The somatic nervous system consists of afferent fibers that receive information from external sources, and efferent fibers that are responsible for muscle contraction.
Describe the autonomic nervous system.
the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls homeostasis
Into what three classes is the autonomic nervous sytem divided?
enteric, sympathetic, parasympathetic
describe the enteric nervous system.
the part of the nervous system that directly controls the gastrointestinal system
Describe the sympathetic nervous system.
best known for mediating the neuronal and hormonal stress response commonly known as the fight or flight response; utilized during emergency situations
Describe the parasympathetic nervous system.
"rest and digest" pathway; promotes normal maintenance of the body- acquiring building blocks and energy from food and getting rid of the wastes
It promotes secretions and mobility of different parts of the digestive tract.
Also involved in urination, defecation.
what type of nervous system are somatic and autonomic divisions of?
efferent division of PNS
where are somatic efferent nerves found? what is the structure of somatic efferent neuron? what is the major neurotransmitter?
innervate skeletal muscle; motor neurons

a single neuron between CNS and skeletal muscle cells

Ach is main neurotransmitter
how do somatic neurons cause excitation and inhibition?
activity in somatic neurons leads to contraction on innervated skeletal muscles

there are NO somatic neurons that inhibit skeletal muscle; muscle relaxation involves inhibition of motor neurons in the spinal cord
what structures does the autonomic division innervate? describe structure and major function?
smooth muscle, cardiac muslce, glands

consists of two neurons with ganglion in middle

major fxn is homeostasis

can be inhibitory/excitatory
what are two divisions of autonomic nervous system?
sympathetic nervous system and parasympathetic nervous system