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32 Cards in this Set

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What are the benefits to varying cell sizes?
Long cells are important for quick transfer information to brain.
Small cells give it the advantage of getting nutrients in and waste out because surface is stonger.
How does a eukaryotic cell benefit from its internal membranes?
The three basic structural components of the eukaryotic cells are important:
The Plasma membrane: forms outer covering of the cell.
The nucleus: the brain of the cell.
The cytoplasma: Is everything inside the cell except the nucleus. It is made of a gel-like substance called cytosol (cell-solution). The cytosol contains structures called organelles that carry out specific jobs.
What is the function of the nucleus?
The nucleus is the genetic control center it contains RNA & DNA, ribosomes synthesis.
What is the function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER)?
The smooth endoplasmic reticulum is attached to the nucleus. Here lipids are produced and it serves as a transport vesicle.(The small member on the smooth ER breaks off and it is filled with proteins.)
What is the function of the rough endoplasmic reticulum?
The rough ER is attached to the nucleus. Proteins are produced (because of ribosomes in its membrane)
What is the function of ribosomes?
Small structures made up of RNA and certain proteins, some floating freely or some attached to the endoplasmic reticulum. Ribosomes makes certain proteins.
What is the function of the Golgi Apparatus?
The Goldi apparatus receives and modifies macromolecules from the endoplasmic reticulum "ships" finished products via transport vesicles to plasma membrane, other organelles, or outside cell. The Golgi apparatus appears like a bunch of flat pancakes stacked on top of each other. It contains enzymes for further refining of products. It strains all the products (like a strainer) at the top and are released at the bottom.
What are the functions of lysosomes?
Lysosomes (sac filled with digestive enzymes)digest good particles, destroys harmful bacteria,and recycles damaged organelles.
What is the function of vesicles?
A small membrane bound fluid-filled sac that encloses and contains certain substances within a cell(ships and stores). The vesicles transports the products of the ER and Golgi apparatus.
What are the different types of vesicles and their functions?
The Secretory vesicle:
contains products that leave the cell. They go to the plasma membrane and release the contents out of the cell by exocytosis.
Endocytotic vesicles:
These structures enclose bacteria and raw materials brought into the cell through endocytosis.
What are the functions of peroxisomes?
Peroximsomes are vesicles that contain powerful enzymes produced by the Golgi apparatus. The enzymes destroy various toxic wastes produced withing the cell, including hydrogen peroxide. They also destroy compounds that have entered the cell like alcohol.
What are the function of Mitochondria?
Mitochondria (cell power plant) are the high energy organelles contain protein enzymes, that break down food molecules. The energy released in the mitochondria is used to make chemical energy ATP. Than carried to the cytosol where energy can be available for the cell.
What is the function of the cytoskeleton?
The cytoskeleton consists of microtubles and microfilaments that attach to and support the cell's organelles and plasma membrane. The cytoskeleton Provides paths for organelle movement. It provides shape, support, and anchorage for organelles. At the plasma membrane the cytoskeleton fibers attach to proteins in the membrane, called glycoproteins (carbohydrate groups)
What is the function of centrioles?
centrioles (found close to the nucleus) short rod like micro tubular structures,are essential for the cell division. It helps DNA & RNA.
What is the function of Celia/flagella?
Both similar in form, hair-like structures that are on some cells. Cilia moves material along the surface of cells with a brushing motion.(airways)
Flagella,longer in humans, are found only on sperm cells. The whip like movement of the flagellum moves the entire sperm cell from one place to another.
What is the function of plasma membrane?
Cell boundary provides: cell shape, selectively permeable, consists of protein guards which allows for the passage of some macormolecules.
Why is the endoplasmic reticulum considered rough?
Because it is studded with ribosomes, where proteins are made.
Describe the structure of the plasma membrane.
The plasma membrane is made of two layers of phospholipids, called a lipid bilayer, plus cholesterol and various proteins. The phospholipids (polar head & neutral nonpolar tail). The two layers of phospholipids arrange themselves so that the nonpolar tails meet in the center and the polar end faces the outside of the cell and the other faces the inside of the cell. Cholesterol fills the inside of the membrane and makes it more rigid.
Proteins: are embedded in the plasma membrane. They are like doors and windows of a house and transport molecules and information across.
What is meant by the "fluid mosaic of proteins"?
It is often referred to this to indicate that the plasma membrane is not a rigid stucture and that the pattern of proteins within it constantly changes.
Compare and contrast diffusion.
Diffusion (passive transport of cells) is a spontaneous movement of particles from areas where they are more concentrated to where they are less concentrated. The tendency of the particles is to even out.
Compare and contrast osmosis.
Osmosis is the diffusion of water molecules driven by the difference in solute concentrations.
In a beaker with a permeable membrane filled half way with water with a permeable membrane down the center. When there is higher number of solutes than the other side the water will try to even itself out and go to side with more solutes. The side with higher concentration of solutes is called Hpertonic and the side with less concentration of solutes is called Hypotonic. If a cell has more solutes than its surroundings the water will want to enter it and it will expand and explode if it does not have the means to release it.
What is facilitated diffusion?
This process is one of the 3 ways of passive transports (use of no energy,concentration gradient) through the cell membrane. The molecules pass through the cell membrane attached to a membrane protein, triggering the protein to change its shape and transfer the molecule to other side and releases it.
What is active transport?
Active transport is the process that transfers substances into or out of a cell, usually against its concentration gradient. It requires a carrier (transport protein) and expenditure of energy (gas-ATP then turned into ADP) These proteins are sometimes called pumps.
What is exocytosis?
Mechanism by which substances are move from the cell interior to the extracellular space. In exocystosis,a membrane-bound secretory vesicle fuses with the plasma membrane and releases its contents to the exterior.
What is endocytosis?
Process by which fluids, extracellular particles, or even whole bacteria are taken into cells. In endocytosis, the materials become enclosed by a vesicle composed of cell membrane material and then internalized within the cell.
Describe the activity of the sodium-potassium pump and indicate its importance to the cell.
Active transport proteins of the plasma membrane that simultanously transports 3 Na+ out of the cell and 2 K+ in. The sodium-potassium pump is important for maintaining cell volume and for generating the resting membrane potential.
What is cellular metabolism?
It is the sum of all the chemical reactions in the organism.
What is anabolism?
Greek (throwing up, Molecules assembled into larger molecules that have more energy. Requires an input of energy. The assemble of a protein from many amino acids is an example.
What is catabolism?
Greek (throwing down: larger molecules are broken down, to a process that releases energy. The breakdown of glucose into water, carbon dioxide, and energy is an example.
What is ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and what does the body use it for?
A nucleotide composed of adenosine and 3 phosphate groups. Energy is stored between the covalent bonds. ATP is an important carrier of energy for the cell it can be used for the breakdown of carbs, lipids, proteins, helps in movement, membrane active transport, growth repair.
What is the purpose of cellular respiration?
The chemical reactions to produce ATP happens in the mitochondria and breakdown process of carbohydrates(glucose), lipids(fats), & proteins. The 1st step:
Glycolysis: glucose is split to 3 carbons. No Oxygen is needed.
The Krebs cycle:
The 3 carbons are disasembled. Most of the enery is taken by electron transport molecules. Oxygen is used and Carbon dioxide(waste) produced.
The electron transport:
The high-energy electrons and hydrogen ions are striped of their energy, and the energy is used to make ATP. Oxygen is used and water is produced.
How is the process of cellular respiration different in the absence of oxygen?
ATP can be made without oxygen for small amounts of time. When the glucose turns to Glycolysis it uses that energy (2 ATP instead of the normal 36 ATP per glucose molecule)but the mitochondria is not used because it needs oxygen so it is converted to lactic acid which is the burning sensation of muscles.