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89 Cards in this Set

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Wood is strong in both what?
compression and tension
Wood is primarily used in what system?
one-way system where the load is transmitted thru the structural members in one direction.
Joists are a common wood use what is the size and spacing?
2x 6 , x8 x10 x12
Spacings are 12", 16" and 24" OC
Joists must be laterally supported by what?
Sheathing - top edge is held in place by this material however the bottom edge requires bridging Max interval is 8' - and either solid or cross bridging may be used
Most common use for solid wood beams is?
Plank and beam framing 4x6 nominal width span between girders and bearing walls is 4,6,8'
Plank and beam framing normal max spans are what?
10-20 ft
Glue lam construction are made of what?
Individual pieces of 3/4" lumber and come in standard widths of 3 1/8", 5 1/8", 6 3/4" and 8 3/4"
Typical Glue lam spans are what?
15 ft to 60 ft
What are the 3 types of Manufactured wood products used today
Lightweight I joists
Glue Laminated products
Trusses
Lightweight I joists allow for what
long spans and are more problem free do to the manufacturing method free from checks and warping
Glue laminated beams have what
Higher Modulus of Elasticity than regular wood products
Glue laminated products have how much allowable stress in bending?
2 as much as regular douglas fir
Truss are held together with what?
Metal Plates
Wood Trusses can span how far
24 to 40 ft and typical depth is 12- 36"
Common Spacing for wood trusses
24" O.C.
Steel is the most commonly used material structural material why?
High strength, availability, and ability to adapt
Steel is what kind of Material
Ductile- meaning it can tolerate some deformation and return to its original shape.Before it breaks
Steel is used in what type of construction typically?
multifloor construction because of the strength and Structural continuity.
Two most common structural systems are what?
Beam and Girder
Open web steel joist system
In a beam and girder system which way to the members span?
girders span shorter distances
Beams span longer distances
Typical spans for Beam and Girder System is what?
25- 40 ft with the beams being spaced 8'- 10' O.C.
Open Web Steel joists span between what?
Beams and bearing walls
Standard Open web joists can span up to how long?
60 ft
Long Span Open web joists can span up to how long?
96 ft
Deep Long span joists can span up to how long?
144 ft
Depth of standard joists range from what Depth?
8" to 30" in depth in increments of 2"
Long Span Joists range from what Depth?
18" to 72"
Open Web floor joists are typically spaced how far apart
2 to 4 ft OC
Open Web Roof Joists are typically spaced how far apart?
4 to 6 ft OC
Two Primary types of Concrete are what?
Cast in place and Precast
Cast in place concrete structural systems are classified in two general types, what are they?
One Way systems and
Two way systems.
One Way Systems
slabs and beams are designed to transfer the loads in one direction.
Example beam and girder system
Typical span for a One way system is?
15 to 30 ft
What are the 3 principle two-way concrete systems
flat plate
flat slab
waffle slab
Which of the 3 systems is the simplest?
Flat Plate- slab is designed to be reinforced in both directions directly into the columns.- limited to light weight and short spans.
Flat plate is used for what type of building.
Building where floor to floor height needs to be kept to a min
A flat slab is used for what?
Where the span is large or the live loads are heavier.These plates require drop panels to provide for punching shear
Flat Slab can accommodate what kind of loads and spans?
heavier loads and economical spans to 30 ft
Two Primary types of Concrete are what?
Cast in place and Precast
Cast in place concrete structural systems are classified in two general types, what are they?
One Way systems and
Two way systems.
One Way Systems
slabs and beams are designed to transfer the loads in one direction.
Example beam and girder system
Typical span for a One way system is?
15 to 30 ft
What are the 3 principle two-way concrete systems
flat plate
flat slab
waffle slab
Which of the 3 systems is the simplest?
Flat Plate- slab is designed to be reinforced in both directions directly into the columns.- limited to light weight and short spans.
Flat plate is used for what type of building.
Building where floor to floor height needs to be kept to a min
A flat slab is used for what?
Where the span is large or the live loads are heavier.These plates require drop panels to provide for punching shear
Flat Slab can accommodate what kind of loads and spans?
heavier loads and economical spans to 30 ft
Waffle Slab System can support what?
Heavier loads at a slightly longer spans up to 40 ft economically.
Masonry
Masonry Section
Masonry is generally limited to what type of wall?
Bearing
Masonry is good in what?
Masonry has a high compressive strength but is weak in tension and bending.
Three types of masonry bearing walls construction are/
Single wythe
Double wythe
Cavity
Masonry walls have what advantages to them
strength
design flexiablity
attractive appearance
resistance to weathering
fire resistance.
Structural System Selection
Critera
What is the primary concern for an architect of a structural system?
the primary consideration is the ability of the structural system to resist the anticipated and unanticipated load that are placed on the building.
Dead Loads
Vertical loads due to the weight of the building and premanent equipment
Live Loads
Are loads due to the particular use and occupancy and are considered moveable or temporary, people furniture, wind, earthquake and snow loads are not considered live loads
Live Load Reduction
IBC allows live load reduction in most cases except for public assembly occupancy
Live Load in a public Assembly is what?
A live load my no be reduced for a public assembly occupancy with the live load less than or equal to 100 psf or for any member supporting on floor of a parking garage or with a live load exceeding 100 psf
Live Load Reduction Formula
L = Lo ( 0.25 + 15 / √ kLL At

Lo = uniform live load
KLL = Live load element factor
At = tributary area supported by a structural member
Live Load Factor
L
L must not be less than 0.5 Lo for members supporting 1 floor or 0.4 Lo for members supporting more than one floor
Allowable percentage of Reduction formula
R = 23.1 ( 1 + D / Lo )

D = Dead load
Lo = Live Load
Minimum Roof Live Load
Lr = 20 R1(R2)

R1 is based on the tributary area At if the area is between 200 and 600 sq/ft use this formula

R1 = 1.2 - 0.001 At

R2 is based on roof slope
if the roof does not exceed 4 in/ft or exceeds 12 in/ft use this formula

R2 = 1.2 -0.05 F
For purposes of calculation wind is considered a what?
Static Force
Velocity of Wind
First Variable - the pressure on building varies as the square of the velocity
Velocity of Wind Formula
Ppsf = 0.00256v2 mph
Wind Velocity is higher or lower at the ground level of a building?
Since wind acts as any fluid where a surface causes friction and slows the fluid, wind velocity is lower near the ground and increases with height
Wind speed values are taken at what standard height
33 ft above ground
What are the three factors that effect wind loading on a building
Wind velocity
Height
Buildings Surroundings
What is the pressure on the windward side of the building?
positive pressure
What is the pressure on the leeward side of the building?
negative pressure or suction
Other local areas of wind pressure occur where thru out a building
Corners, overhangs, parapets and other projections
Openings at the ground floor of a building might cause what to happen?
Normal wind speeds to increase to unacceptable levels
Building drift is what?
Distance a building moves from side to side in the wind
Building Drifts maximum should be what?
Should not exceed 1/500 of the height of the building.
Calculation for the pressure at the bottom of a retaining wall?
P= p ( h / 2 )

Example

Retain wall is 8 ft in height, the soil is free draining silt sand and is 45 psf. therefore

8(45) = 360psf the horizontal load
(360psf /2) * 8 = 1440 psf
What is the weight of water and what is force on structures called
62 lbf/ft 3 and hydrostatic pressure.
fa = P /A
To solve for unit stress
P = external force ie (24,000 lbs) A = area of Cross section 1.5 in/sq fa = 24000/1.5= 16000 psi
P= fa /A
To solve for external Force
A= P / fa
To solve area - Stress
Tensile and Compressive stress that accompany beam action cannot be calculated using what formula.
fa = P/A
Horizontal Shear

fv = V / Aw
To solve for shear stress
fv = unit stress
V= Max. Vertical shear
Aw = the area of the web ( depth of the section x web thickness)
Modulus of elasticity of a material.
Indicates its degree of stiffness.
E= f /s
To solve for Modulus of Elasticity
E = psi or ksi f = unit stress = (psi) s = unit deformation (in per in)
P/A
E = _____

e / l
P = Force , A = cross section area , e = total Defromation
l = length
Pl
E = _____

Ae
P = Force , l = length , A = cross section area , e = total Defromation
Pl
e= _____

AE
P = Force , l = length , A = cross section area , E = Modulus of Elasticity
E for steel is equal to what?
E= 29,000,000 psi
E for wood is equal to what?
E= 1,000,000 to 1,760,000 psi