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89 Cards in this Set
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Wood is strong in both what?

compression and tension


Wood is primarily used in what system?

oneway system where the load is transmitted thru the structural members in one direction.


Joists are a common wood use what is the size and spacing?

2x 6 , x8 x10 x12
Spacings are 12", 16" and 24" OC 

Joists must be laterally supported by what?

Sheathing  top edge is held in place by this material however the bottom edge requires bridging Max interval is 8'  and either solid or cross bridging may be used


Most common use for solid wood beams is?

Plank and beam framing 4x6 nominal width span between girders and bearing walls is 4,6,8'


Plank and beam framing normal max spans are what?

1020 ft


Glue lam construction are made of what?

Individual pieces of 3/4" lumber and come in standard widths of 3 1/8", 5 1/8", 6 3/4" and 8 3/4"


Typical Glue lam spans are what?

15 ft to 60 ft


What are the 3 types of Manufactured wood products used today

Lightweight I joists
Glue Laminated products Trusses 

Lightweight I joists allow for what

long spans and are more problem free do to the manufacturing method free from checks and warping


Glue laminated beams have what

Higher Modulus of Elasticity than regular wood products


Glue laminated products have how much allowable stress in bending?

2 as much as regular douglas fir


Truss are held together with what?

Metal Plates


Wood Trusses can span how far

24 to 40 ft and typical depth is 12 36"


Common Spacing for wood trusses

24" O.C.


Steel is the most commonly used material structural material why?

High strength, availability, and ability to adapt


Steel is what kind of Material

Ductile meaning it can tolerate some deformation and return to its original shape.Before it breaks


Steel is used in what type of construction typically?

multifloor construction because of the strength and Structural continuity.


Two most common structural systems are what?

Beam and Girder
Open web steel joist system 

In a beam and girder system which way to the members span?

girders span shorter distances
Beams span longer distances 

Typical spans for Beam and Girder System is what?

25 40 ft with the beams being spaced 8' 10' O.C.


Open Web Steel joists span between what?

Beams and bearing walls


Standard Open web joists can span up to how long?

60 ft


Long Span Open web joists can span up to how long?

96 ft


Deep Long span joists can span up to how long?

144 ft


Depth of standard joists range from what Depth?

8" to 30" in depth in increments of 2"


Long Span Joists range from what Depth?

18" to 72"


Open Web floor joists are typically spaced how far apart

2 to 4 ft OC


Open Web Roof Joists are typically spaced how far apart?

4 to 6 ft OC


Two Primary types of Concrete are what?

Cast in place and Precast


Cast in place concrete structural systems are classified in two general types, what are they?

One Way systems and
Two way systems. 

One Way Systems

slabs and beams are designed to transfer the loads in one direction.
Example beam and girder system 

Typical span for a One way system is?

15 to 30 ft


What are the 3 principle twoway concrete systems

flat plate
flat slab waffle slab 

Which of the 3 systems is the simplest?

Flat Plate slab is designed to be reinforced in both directions directly into the columns. limited to light weight and short spans.


Flat plate is used for what type of building.

Building where floor to floor height needs to be kept to a min


A flat slab is used for what?

Where the span is large or the live loads are heavier.These plates require drop panels to provide for punching shear


Flat Slab can accommodate what kind of loads and spans?

heavier loads and economical spans to 30 ft


Two Primary types of Concrete are what?

Cast in place and Precast


Cast in place concrete structural systems are classified in two general types, what are they?

One Way systems and
Two way systems. 

One Way Systems

slabs and beams are designed to transfer the loads in one direction.
Example beam and girder system 

Typical span for a One way system is?

15 to 30 ft


What are the 3 principle twoway concrete systems

flat plate
flat slab waffle slab 

Which of the 3 systems is the simplest?

Flat Plate slab is designed to be reinforced in both directions directly into the columns. limited to light weight and short spans.


Flat plate is used for what type of building.

Building where floor to floor height needs to be kept to a min


A flat slab is used for what?

Where the span is large or the live loads are heavier.These plates require drop panels to provide for punching shear


Flat Slab can accommodate what kind of loads and spans?

heavier loads and economical spans to 30 ft


Waffle Slab System can support what?

Heavier loads at a slightly longer spans up to 40 ft economically.


Masonry

Masonry Section


Masonry is generally limited to what type of wall?

Bearing


Masonry is good in what?

Masonry has a high compressive strength but is weak in tension and bending.


Three types of masonry bearing walls construction are/

Single wythe
Double wythe Cavity 

Masonry walls have what advantages to them

strength
design flexiablity attractive appearance resistance to weathering fire resistance. 

Structural System Selection

Critera


What is the primary concern for an architect of a structural system?

the primary consideration is the ability of the structural system to resist the anticipated and unanticipated load that are placed on the building.


Dead Loads

Vertical loads due to the weight of the building and premanent equipment


Live Loads

Are loads due to the particular use and occupancy and are considered moveable or temporary, people furniture, wind, earthquake and snow loads are not considered live loads


Live Load Reduction

IBC allows live load reduction in most cases except for public assembly occupancy


Live Load in a public Assembly is what?

A live load my no be reduced for a public assembly occupancy with the live load less than or equal to 100 psf or for any member supporting on floor of a parking garage or with a live load exceeding 100 psf


Live Load Reduction Formula

L = Lo ( 0.25 + 15 / √ kLL At
Lo = uniform live load KLL = Live load element factor At = tributary area supported by a structural member 

Live Load Factor
L 
L must not be less than 0.5 Lo for members supporting 1 floor or 0.4 Lo for members supporting more than one floor


Allowable percentage of Reduction formula

R = 23.1 ( 1 + D / Lo )
D = Dead load Lo = Live Load 

Minimum Roof Live Load

Lr = 20 R1(R2)
R1 is based on the tributary area At if the area is between 200 and 600 sq/ft use this formula R1 = 1.2  0.001 At R2 is based on roof slope if the roof does not exceed 4 in/ft or exceeds 12 in/ft use this formula R2 = 1.2 0.05 F 

For purposes of calculation wind is considered a what?

Static Force


Velocity of Wind

First Variable  the pressure on building varies as the square of the velocity


Velocity of Wind Formula

Ppsf = 0.00256v2 mph


Wind Velocity is higher or lower at the ground level of a building?

Since wind acts as any fluid where a surface causes friction and slows the fluid, wind velocity is lower near the ground and increases with height


Wind speed values are taken at what standard height

33 ft above ground


What are the three factors that effect wind loading on a building

Wind velocity
Height Buildings Surroundings 

What is the pressure on the windward side of the building?

positive pressure


What is the pressure on the leeward side of the building?

negative pressure or suction


Other local areas of wind pressure occur where thru out a building

Corners, overhangs, parapets and other projections


Openings at the ground floor of a building might cause what to happen?

Normal wind speeds to increase to unacceptable levels


Building drift is what?

Distance a building moves from side to side in the wind


Building Drifts maximum should be what?

Should not exceed 1/500 of the height of the building.


Calculation for the pressure at the bottom of a retaining wall?

P= p ( h / 2 )
Example Retain wall is 8 ft in height, the soil is free draining silt sand and is 45 psf. therefore 8(45) = 360psf the horizontal load (360psf /2) * 8 = 1440 psf 

What is the weight of water and what is force on structures called

62 lbf/ft 3 and hydrostatic pressure.


fa = P /A

To solve for unit stress
P = external force ie (24,000 lbs) A = area of Cross section 1.5 in/sq fa = 24000/1.5= 16000 psi 

P= fa /A

To solve for external Force


A= P / fa

To solve area  Stress


Tensile and Compressive stress that accompany beam action cannot be calculated using what formula.

fa = P/A


Horizontal Shear
fv = V / Aw 
To solve for shear stress
fv = unit stress V= Max. Vertical shear Aw = the area of the web ( depth of the section x web thickness) 

Modulus of elasticity of a material.

Indicates its degree of stiffness.


E= f /s

To solve for Modulus of Elasticity
E = psi or ksi f = unit stress = (psi) s = unit deformation (in per in) 

P/A
E = _____ e / l 
P = Force , A = cross section area , e = total Defromation
l = length 

Pl
E = _____ Ae 
P = Force , l = length , A = cross section area , e = total Defromation


Pl
e= _____ AE 
P = Force , l = length , A = cross section area , E = Modulus of Elasticity


E for steel is equal to what?

E= 29,000,000 psi


E for wood is equal to what?

E= 1,000,000 to 1,760,000 psi
