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89 Cards in this Set

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Stress and Coping
Stress and Coping
What is______ and _______???
Stressors
Crisis
Fight-or-Flight Response where does all this happen???
Medulla oblongata
Reticular formation
Pituitary gland
General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
Alarm reaction
Resistance stage
Exhaustion stage
Reaction to Psychological Stress
Primary appraisal: identification
Secondary appraisal: coping strategies
What are common Coping Mechanisms?
Compensation
Conversion
Denial
Displacement
Identification
Dissociation
Regression
Types of Stress
Distress: damages Work, family, chronic, acute, daily hassles, trauma, crisis
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
Eustress: protects
Crisis
Developmental
Situational
What is Neuman’s Systems Model?
Prevent or reduce stressors
“Normal line of defense”
Prevention strategies: primary, secondary, tertiary
What is Pender’s Health Promotion Model?
Avoid negative events
Stress-reduction strategies
what are the Related Factors?
Situational factors
Maturational factors
Sociocultural factors
What is in Assessment part?
Subjective findings
Objective findings
Client expectations
What are some Nursing Diagnoses?
Compromised family coping
Ineffective coping
Post-trauma syndrome
Disturbed sleep pattern
Impaired social interaction
What occurs in the Planning?
Goals and outcomes
– Example: enhanced coping abilities
Setting priorities
Continuity of care
What occurs in the Implementation?
Health promotion
Exercise
Support systems
Time management
Guided imagery and visualization
Progressive muscle relaxation
Assertiveness trainingHealth promotion (cont'd)
Journal writing
Workplace stress management
Acute care
Crisis intervention
What occurs in the Evaluation?
Client expectations
Response to interventions
What are the Nature of Infections?
Pathogens
Communicable or contagious
WHat is the Course of Infection?
Incubation period
Prodromal stage
Illness stage
Convalescence
What is the Chain of Infection?
Agent
Reservoir
Portal of exit
Mode of transmission
Portal of entry
Susceptible host
What is need in Infectious Agent to causes disease?
Infectious Agent
Number
Virulence
Entry and survival in host
Susceptibility of host
What are Ex. of Reservoirs?
Food
Oxygen
Water
Temperature
pH
Light
Skin and mucous membranes
Respiratory tract
Urinary tract
Gastrointestinal tract
Reproductive tract
Blood
What are the Modes of Transmission?
Contact: direct, indirect, droplet
Air
Vehicles
Vectors
And lets not forget the....
Portal of exit and entry
Susceptible host
What is the Infectious Process?
Pathogenicity of microorganisms
Susceptibility of host
Localized
Systemic
What are the Defenses Against Infection?
Normal body flora
Body system defenses
Inflammatory response
Vascular and cellular responses
Formation of exudates
Tissue repair
What are the types and explain Ex of each one Nosocomial Infections??
Iatrogenic
Exogenous
Endogenous
The Assessment is....
Status of body defenses
Client susceptibility
Age
Nutritional status
Stress
Disease process
Medical therapy
Clinical appearance
Laboratory data
Clients with infections
Nursing Diagnoses EX.
Risk for infection
Altered nutrition: less than body requirements
Impaired skin integrity
What are some Planning
Goals and outcomes
Examples??
Reduction in wound size by 1 cm
Absence of drainage
Setting priorities
Continuity of care
What is involved in the Implementation
phase???
Prevention and treatment of infection
Asepsis: medical and surgical
Standard precautions
Hand hygiene
Personal protective equipment
Isolation/protective environments
Client and family education
What are some Ex. of Isolation Precautions?
Tier two: airborne, droplet, contact
Psychological implications
Environment
Equipment
Specimen collection
Bagging of trash and linen
Transporting clients
What are the Surgical Asepsis
Principles for
Sterile procedures?
Protective clothing
Opening sterile packages
Sterile field
Sterile scrub
Gowning/gloving
And last but not least...
Evaluation
Client outcomes
Response to treatment
aerobic
Of or pertaining to the presence of air or oxygen; requiring oxygen for the maintenance of life
anaerobic
Absence of oxygen
antibodies
Immunoglobulins essential to the immune system that are produced by lymphoid tissue in response to bacteria, viruses, or other antigens.
antigen
Substance (usually a protein) that causes the formation of an antibody and that reacts specifically with that antibody.
artificial immunity
Immunity that follows the receipt of a vaccine, such as occurs with a tetanus or polio vaccine
asepsis
Absence of germs or microorganisms.()
bactericidal
Destructive to bacteria.()
bacteriostasis
State in which the development or reproduction of bacteria is suspended.
broad-spectrum antibiotics do not become ill.
Antibiotics that are effective against a wide range of infectious microorganisms
carriers
Animals or persons who harbor and spread a disease-causing organism but who do not become ill.
colonizing
Referring to the establishment of a mass of microorganisms, often nonpathogenic, in or on the body
communicable disease
Any disease that can be transmitted from one person or animal to another by direct or indirect contact or by vectors
complement
Inactive protein compound found in blood serum that is activated when an antigen and an antibody bind together. After a complement is activated, a rapid sequence of catalytic activity changes the shape of antigenic cells
cytolysis
Rupturing of a cell wall, usually occurring after water or ions have entered the cell.
disinfection
Process of killing pathogenic organisms
edema
Abnormal accumulation of fluid in interstitial spaces of tissues
endogenous infection
Infection produced within a cell or organism.
exogenous
infectionInfection originating outside an organ or part
epidemiology
Study of the occurrence, distribution, and causes of disease.
exudates
Fluid, cells, or other substances that have been slowly discharged from cells or blood vessels through small pores or breaks in cell membranes.
epidemiology
Study of the occurrence, distribution, and causes of disease
exogenous infection
Infection originating outside an organ or part.
exudates
Fluid, cells, or other substances that have been slowly discharged from cells or blood vessels through small pores or breaks in cell membranes
granulation
tissueSoft, pink, fleshy projections of tissue that form during the healing process in a wound that is not healing by primary intention.
hand hygiene
CDC-recommended approaches for cleansing of the hands involving the use of an instant alcohol hand antiseptic before and after providing client care, hand washing with soap and water when hands are visibly soiled, or performing a surgical scrub.
hand washing
Vigorous, brief rubbing together of all surfaces of hands lathered in soap, followed by rinsing under a stream of water.
iatrogenic infections
Infections caused by a treatment or diagnostic procedure.
immune responses
Defense functions of the body that produce antibodies to destroy invading antigens and malignancies.
immunocompromised
Abnormal condition of the immune system in which cellular or humoral immunity is inadequate.
immunoglobulins
Humoral antibodies produced by the body and present in serum and external secretions; formed in response to specific antigens.
inflammatory response
Protective vascular and cellular reaction that neutralizes pathogens and repairs body cells.
interferon
Protein that interferes with the ability of viruses to multiply and protects body cells from simultaneous infection with other viruses .
invasive
Referring to procedures that involve puncture, incision, or insertion of a foreign object, such as a needle or catheter, into the body.
leukocytosis
Abnormal increase in the number of circulating white blood cells.
localized
With regard to infections, a type of infection in which the infectious process is limited to a particular area, such as a wound infection.
lymphokine
A product of cell-mediated immunity; these cells attract macrophages and stimulate them to attack antigens.
medical asepsis
Procedures used to reduce and prevent the spread of microorganisms; also known as clean technique.
microorganisms
Any microscopic entity capable of carrying on living processes, such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi.
natural immunity
Inherited resistance to infection (e.g., humans are resistant to the distemper virus that affects dogs and cats).
necrotic
Of or pertaining to the death of tissue in response to disease or injury.
normal flora
Microorganisms that live on or within a body to compete with disease-producing microorganisms and provide a natural immunity against certain infections.
passive immunity
Form of acquired immunity resulting from antibodies that are transmitted naturally through the placenta to the fetus, through the colostrum to an infant, or artificially by injection or antiserum for treatment or prophylaxis.
pathogen
Any microorganism capable of producing disease
pathogenicity
Ability of a pathogenic agent to produce disease.
phagocytosis
Process by which certain cells, such as macrophages, engulf and dispose of microorganisms.
purulent
Producing or containing pus.
sanguineous
Fluid containing red blood cells.
serous
A clear (like plasma) fluid that forms an exudate at the site of an inflammation.
sterile field
Specified area, such as within a tray or on a sterile towel, that is considered free of microorganisms.
sterilization
Rendering a person unable to produce children; accomplished by surgical, chemical, or other means.
suprainfection
Secondary infection usually caused by an opportunistic pathogen.
(33)
surgical asepsis
Procedures used to eliminate all microorganisms, including pathogens and spores, from an object or area; also known as sterile technique.
susceptibility
Condition of being vulnerable to a disease or disorder.
systemic
Of or pertaining to the whole body rather than to a localized area.
vector
Carrier, especially one that transmits disease
virulence
The ability to produce disease.