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28 Cards in this Set

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Glycolysis produces how many ATP?
2
In Glycolysis, carbon is (oxidized/reduced) and co factors are (oxidized/reduced)
oxidized

reduced
What are the three products of glycolysis?
pyruvate, ATP and NADH + H+
A major strategy of glycolysis to create high energy compounds that can release energy. Which two compounds are created that form ATP?
1,3-bisphosphoglycerate and phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)
What enzyme is responsible for step one of glycolysis (glucose to g-6-P)?
hexokinase, a someone promiscuous enzyme that phosphorylates a lot of enzymes
What is the considered to be the committed step of glycolysis?
Step 3, is the formation fructose 1,6 bisphosphate. It is an important regulatory step in that it regulates how much sugar ends up in the blood
Is this committed step reversible?
NO! Highly exergonic
Dehydrogenases are always associated with ____ and kinases are always associated with ______
redox reactions, group transfers
THe first 5 steps of glycolysis are called ___
the priming steps
What are some of the key things that happen in the priming steps?
1) 2 ATP are used... but none is formed yet because the high energy cmpd needed is not yet made

2) You start with a 6 carbon cmpd and end up with two isomerized, phosphorylated 3 carbon cmpd ready to make energy

3)
the 6th step (right after the priming phase) is a redox reaction that forms what?
1,3 bisphosphoglycerate
How does the redox work in this case?
the carbon is oxidized, which is exergonic and allows for the addition of the second phosphate to create 1 3 bisphosphoglycerate
what co factor is involved in this reaction?
NAD+ is reduced to form NADH + H+ (since carbon is oxidized
What happens next after the formation of 1,3 bisphosphogylcerate?
using ADP, a phosphate is cleaved and added to form ATP
what enzyme is responsible for this?
phosphoglycerate kinase
steps 8 and 9 prepare and create the second high energy compound, _____
PEP or phosphoenolpyruvate
what enzyme catalyzes the break down of PEP to form ATP
pyruvate kinase
Summary of the second 5 reactions – Payday!

-All reaction happen twice.
-Carbon is oxidized, cofactor is reduced.
-The high-energy compounds 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate and phosphoenolpyruvate are formed.
-ATP is made by substrate-level phosphorylation.
fact card
what vitamin is required for glycolysis
niacin (NAD)
This vitamin becomes part of a coenzyme. What role does this coenzyme play in glycolysis?

It accepts phosphates during substrate level phosphorylation.
It accepts electrons from carbon.
It isomerizes sugars.
It forms a thioester bond during group transfer reactions.
All of the above.
it accepts electrons from carbon
If you see a kinase enzyme, then you are dealing with___ in someway or another
ATP
Which rxns are irreversible and why?
#1 --> converting glucose to g6p using ATP and hexokinase (large neg delta G

#3 --> adding a phosphate to form to 1,3 bisphosphoglycerate using ATP and phospho fructokinase

#3---> Breakdown of PEP by pyruvate kinase to form ATP
where does glycolysis occur?
cytoplasm
What is the committed step of glycolysis?
#3, the formation of fructose 1 6 bis phosphate
What are the two high energy compounds that when broken down, produce ATP
1 3 bisphosphoglycerate and PEP
when there is excess ATP, which step is inhibited?
the step 3, the regulatory/ committed step, which if hit, goes thru glyc. High ATP levels inhibit this
what do isozymes do?
allow for differences in glycolysis based on the type of tissue it occurs in
Imagine a cell with 100 molecules of glucose, 20 molecules of NAD+ and everything else needed to carry out glycolysis. How many ATP can the cell make?
20
40
80
100
I need help with this.
20