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124 Cards in this Set

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Natural steroids
Structural cell components, metabolic reactors, hormones, etc.
Synthetic steroids
drugs for birth control, abortion, bodybuilding, and allergies
Regulation of secondary sexual characteristics, female sex hormone (e), male sex hormone (t)
estradiol and testosterone
reproduction and control of the reproductive cycle, pregnancy hormone
progesterone
regulation of metabolism
cortisol
digestion of fat
cholic acid
Cell membrane component
Cholesterol
Excess of cholesterol can form...
Hardening in the arteries which causes the arteries to narrow and increase the risk of high blood pressure / heart disease
Cholesterol is produced
in the liver to produce estrogen, testosterone and other steroid hormones
The liver uses saturated fatty acids to produce:
lauric acid, myristic acid and palmitic acid
HDL
is good cholesterol, it can remove cholesterol from blood vessels and carry it to the liver
LDL
is bad cholesterol, it can deposit cholesterol in blood vessels (arteriosclerosis)
Lipoproteins
Fat-protein complexes, transport cholesterol in blood.
Which foods have higher cholesterol counts?
Produce has 0 cholesterol, egg yolk and shrimp have the highest cholesterol.
Statins
Drug to treat cholesterol build up, inhibit enzymes which produce cholesterol, tells the liver it needs to use the cholesterol in blood
Androgen, testosterone
Male sex hormones
Anabolic steroids
Synthetic steroidal hormones, used to stimulate muscle and bone growth, initially developed to help patients with debilitating illnesses to regain muscle (anabolic effect)
Androgenic effect
Masculinization of the female body, acne and hair loss, breast development and genital shrinking in men <-- taking anabolic steroids
What regulates the menstrual cycle?
Strogens / estradoil
Progestines / progesterone
Prepare the uterus to receive a fertilized egg and helps maintain pregnancy once it's begun.
FSH & LH
Two brain hormones that promote the production of sex hormones by the ovaries and the testes. As the amount of sex hormone increases, it turns off the production of the FSH and LH to keep the levels of sex hormone consistant.
What does progesterone do?
It blocks the release of hormones that stimulate ovulation which could lead to serious complications during pregnancy.
First birth control pill
Was supposed to stop ovulation with few side effects. It was a progesterone agonist.
The Abortion PIll
Mifepristone or RU-486, activity is essential for implantation of embryo in cells when the progesterone is blocked, the developing embryo is spontaneous aborted.
hCG
A hormone that the female body produces after the fertilized egg implants itself in the uterine wall. hCG causes progesterone to be produced so the body doesn't reject the developing embryo. Female rabbits were killed so doctors could examine their ovaries.
DNA (remember 4 things)
Found in the cell nucleus.
Very large molecules.
Double stranded.
Stores genetic info.
RNA (remember 4 things)
Found in the nucleus
RNA has _____ instead of thymine
uracil
Replication
Process by which copies of DNA are made in the cell nucleus. Enzyme involved is polymerase
Nucleoside
phosphate, ribose, base = RNA
Nucleotide
phosphate, deoxyribose, base = DNA
Transcription
When a gene in DNA is copied into a messenger RNA molecule
Translation
mRNA gets sandwiched between the tRNA and the ribosome. Inside the ribosome is where the amino acids will be joined together to make a protein.
tRNA
has an amino acid on one end and anti-codon on the other.
Immune system
A complex network of cells and organs that work together to defend your body from viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa
Innate immune response
Starts very quickly, does not depend on recognizing a specific type of foreign substance, natural killer cells
Acquired immune response
Starts more slowly but frequently longer lived, specific, can remember past infections
antigen
a foreign substance (usually a protein) that can be harmful and causes an immune response.
antigen presenting cells
digest intruders and display the antigen on their surface. Antigen presenting cells look for other immune cells that respond to that specific antigen.
B cells
Recognizes one and only one type of antigen, B cells become active and begin to reproduce when they are found by antigen-presenting cells
What type of cell produces antibodies?
B cells, antibodies mark foreign matter and infected cells for destruction.
T cells
Specific to only one type of antigen
Cytokines
Direct immune cells to attack a foreign substance
CD4+ T Cells
"Helper T Cells", coordinate the immune response, stimulate B cells to respond and increase the production of CD8+ T cells
CD8+ T cells
"Killer cells", kill the cells that have become infected by an antigen. Will either die after they're used or become memory cells.
Types of microbes
Bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, 5 million deaths caused by respiratory disease.
Bacteria infections
HIV and Pneumonia
Girolamo Fracastoro
Diseases could be transmitted between people by tiny organisms
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
Invented a simple microscope, saw organisms
Oliver Wendell Holmes
Women died due to contamination on the hands of their physicians
Philip Semmelweis
Same observation, persuaded his colleagues to wash their hands before treating patients
John Snow & William Budd
Discovered that cholera was transmitted by water supplies contaminated by sewage.
Paul Ehrlich
Discovered that difference dyes stained different cells in the body, discovered chemotherapy and tested hundreds of compounds to treat syphillis
Gerhard Domagk
Prontosil Red, kills Streptococci
Alexander Flemming
accidentally discovered penicillin
What do penicillins do?
Prevent the formation of links between molecules in the cell wall
What do sulphonamides do?
Substiute for PABA and prevent enzymes from producing the essential folic acid
Tetracyclines
Block the delivery of amino acids for protein manufacture
How do antibiotics work? 3 thing
1. Macrolides prevent amino acids being linked together to form proteins 2. Amynoglycosides cause formation of abnormal proteins 3. Quinolones damage DNA and prevent bacteria from reproducing
Ways bacteria resists antibiotics?
Cells produce more of the molecules affected by the drugs, bacteria produce enzymes which destroy the drug, the structure of the wall changes so the drug can't enter, the bacteria produces molecules that push the drug out
Sub-Unit Vaccines
inject part of the virus into the person
Live attenuated vaccines
Inject the whole virus but modify it so it can't reproduce itself
Recombinant Vaccine
putting in a different virus that infects the organism but doesn't give it to HIV
NNRTI (Non-Nucleoside Analog Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors)
Occupy the active site of the enzyme reverse transcriptase
Protease Inhibitors
Occupy the active site of the enzyme protease
Integrase Inhibitors
Occupy the active site of the enzyme integrase
Neuromodulators
Enhance or inhibit neurotransmission
Reactive depression
Reaction to a particular situation, lasts only a few weeks
True, Melancholic or Endogenous Depression
Lasts months or years, patient becomes apathetic, unable to function socially isolated. Speech and body movements become slower, loss of appetite and sleeping problems.
Tricyclics were found to help
Schizophrenic patients
What do tricyclics do?
Block the uptake of neurotransmitters, amoxapine, imapiramine
What do SSRI's do?
Inhibit the reuptake of serotonin, prozac, zoloft, celexa
What do MAOI's do?
Inhbit the monoamine oxidase enzyme, nardil, parnate
Cocaine, who first purified it, who first used it for eye surgery?
Albert Nieman was the first to purify it, Karl Koller was the first to use it for eye surgery.
What is the fastest way to feel the effects of a drug, for example, cocaine?
Smoking it
The difference between tolerance and down regulation?
Tolerance is a higher dose is needed to achieve the same level of response achieved initially; down regulation is when cells respond to the over-stimulus of dopamine by reducing the number of dopamine receptors available to them.
"Caught napping" cells lead to what?
Withdrawal symptoms
Cocaine + what = crack?
HCl
How does THC work?
THC binds to THC receptors on the neighboring terminal and this sends a signal to the dopamine terminal to release more dopamine
How many cells does the human body have?
100 trillion cells that are continually renewed.
Why does a tumor occur in the body?
Cells don't die as fast as they should. In adults, the rate of formation should equal the rate of cell removal.
What causes cells to die?
After a certain time or certain number of cell divisions, a series of biochemical reactions causes the cell to die.
Cancers develop when the process of cell dying is faulty
They don't die when they should, new cells continue to be produced, affected organs and tissues enlarge into tumors
Tumors cause...
1. Discomfort and pain because they grow and press on blood vessels and nerves 2. Secrete large amounts of chemicals that interfere with other organs 3. Parts may break away and begin growing in different parts of the body
Oncogenes
Genes that, when expressed, make cells divide more rapidly, precise balance required with TSG's.
Tumor Suppressor Genes
Genes that suppress cell division, precise balance required with oncogenes
What happens if TSG functions incorrectly?
Oncogenes cause cells to grow and multiply beyond their normal numbers
What happens if oncogenes function incorrectly?
They will signal the cell to grow uncontrollably.
Half of all cancers are due to a defect in TSG called ____
p53, cells do not kill themselves but continue to grow and divide to form a cancer.
A _______ can occur on a single allele of an oncogene for abnormal function to appear
mutation
Cancer is more likely to develop when the _______ is ______.
immune system is weakened
The Reductionist View
Only cancer cells are in a tumor, treatments have been designed to only poison the cancer cells.
Most cancer drugs are designed to ____ or ____ cell growth because...
designed to stop or slow cell growth because the main problem in cancer is that new cells are produced more quickly than the old cells die.
Many cancer drugs interfere with one or more of which processes?
Replication, transcription or translation
Alkylating Agents
Produce covalent bonds among bases of complementary strands that cannot be separated during replication or transcription, effectively killing the cells
Toxic Antibiotics
Become inserted into the DNA molecules, changing their shape and preventing their use by cells.
Folic acid antagonists
Metotrexate impedes the formation of folic acid, which is indispensable for the production of new nucleotides, thus stopping replication and transcription
Procarbazine
Weakens the structure of nucleic acids, causing breakages and cell damage. Also leads to the production of free radicals which react with nucleic acids and proteins causing widespread damage to cancer cells
Purine Antagonists
Inhibit the enzyme responsible for the synthesis of new DNA. This is produced by irreversibly binding the enzymes necessary in the production of new nucleotides.
Antimetabolites
Substitute for the components of DNA, preventing its use by cells
Radiation therapy destroys cells that
divide rapidly (cancer)
Radiation therapy is performed using equipment called
linear acceleration
Most aggressive tumors display a common characteristic:
instability
Since attacking the tumor cells does not seem to have yielded much success, research is increasingly being focused on trying to __________ that tumors need to survive.
Alter the support system
Angiogenesis
new blood vessel formation
Poison
a substance that can cause illness or death
Toxin
harmful substance of biological poison
Acute toxicity
has an immediate effect
Chronic toxicity
has a chronic effect
Corrosive poisons have
strong acids and strong bases
Acids release
hydrogen ions
Bases release
hydroxide ions
A heme group includes
4 molecules of oxygen, it is a transport protein
Blood agents
Compounds that interfere with the normal function of the blood (ability of hemoglobin to bind to oxygen)
Nitrites & carbon monoxide are
blood agents
Why are heavy metals toxic?
Because they change the shape of the active site and make it toxic
Lower lead blood levels lead to
elevated blood pressure
Higher lead blood levels lead to
irreversible mental retardation
Treatments for lead poisoning are called
chelating agents (EDTA and British Anti-Lewisite)
Teratogens
During organogenesis, the embryo is extremely sensitive to teratogens.
Scorpions
Have toxins that block potassium (K+) channels
Snakes
Have toxins that prevent the blood from clotting
Spiders
Opens Ca2+ channels, increasing the secretion of acetylcholine, cramps and difficulty breathing.
Parasite
Single celled organism, much more advanced than bacteria, have a nucleus, pass through a series of stages in their life in which they adopt different forms and may need different hosts.