Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are steroid hormones made from?
Cholesterol - 27C
What is the cholesterol derivative precursor for steroid hormones? How many carbons?
Pregnenolone - 21C
What are the 5 classes of steroid hormones? How many C's?
Progestins = 21C
Glucocorticoids = 21C
Mineralcorticoids = 21C
Androgens = 19C
Estrogens = 18C
How do steroid hormones differ? (2 ways)
1. Number of Carbons
2. Extent/position of OH groups
What hormones are derived from:
-Amino acids
AA = thyroxine
PP = insulin
Cholesterol = steroids
What are the major steroid hormone producing organs?
-Adrenal cortex
Which is the more important organ? Why?
Adrenal cortex - produces all 5 classes of steroid hormones.
What stimulates steroid synthesis in adrenal cortex?
ACTH - stimulates adrenal cortex, produced by Ant. pituitary.
What is the mechanism of hormone action?
Stimulation of organ activity via specific RECEPTORs.
-Major site of synthesis
-What hormones?
-Primary target tissue
Synth: Adrenal cortex
Hormones: Cortisol, cortisone, corticosterone
Targets: Muscle/Liver
-Primary target tissue & Effects of Glucocorticoids:
Targets: Muscle/Liver
-Protein catabolism (fasting state)
-Major site of synthesis
-What hormones?
-Primary target tissue
Synth: Adrenal cortex
Hormones: Aldosterone, 11-deoxycorticosterone
-Primary target tissue & Effects of Mineralcorticoids:
Target: Kidney tubules
-Sodium retention
-Potassium excretion
Indirectly increases BVol+BP
-Major site of synthesis
-What hormones?
Synth: Testes
Hormones: Testosterone
-Primary target tissue & Effects of Androgens:
Target: Reproductive organs and muscle.
-2ndary male characteristics, -Bone maturation
-Major site of synthesis
-Hormones in this class
Synth: Ovary
Hormones: Estradiol, Estrone
Primary target tissues and effects of Estrogens:
Targets: Reproductive organs
-Cyclic rythms
-Maintains bone density
-Major site of synthesis
-Hormone in this class
Synth: Ovary Corpus Luteum
Hormone: Progesterone
Primary target tissues and effects of Progestin:
Target: Uterus
-Cyclic rythms
-Maintains pregnancy
Nidation is
Preparation of uterine lining for ovum implantation
Common use of Glucocorticoids in high doses?
How do Androgens affect muscles?
Increase muscle mass
What are 4 common clinical uses of steroid hormones?
1. Topical - skin disease
2. Hormone replacement therapy (estrogen)
3. Anti-inflammatory Agents
4. Anti-rejection therapy
What is the common Hormone replacement therapy?
Estrogen - for menopause and to prevent osteoporosis.
What steroid hormone is a common anti-inflammatory agent?
Corticosteroids - at HIGH nonphysiological doses.
What often develops in Transplant patients on anti-rejection therapy? Why?
Hyperlipidemia due to:
-Increased HMGCoA Reductase
-Decreased LDL receptors
What can happen to chronic users of corticosteroids (3 effects)?
1. Severe infection
2. Bone necrosis
3. Incr. severity of Diabetes
Why do athletes use anabolic steroids?
Because it builds muscle mass
What are bad side effects of Anabolic steroids?
Kidney/liver disorders
Heart disease
What is the common Hormone replacement therapy?
Estrogen - for menopause and to prevent osteoporosis.
3 Zones of the Adrenal Cortex:
-Glomerulosa (outermost)
(medulla innermost)
First step in steroid hormone production:
Convert Cholesterol to Pregnenolone
Enzyme for Pregnenolone synthesis:
Desmolase - what kind of enzyme?
Another name?
Monooxygenase enzyme
"Cytochrome P450scc"
scc = side chain cleavage
Where is Desmolase located?
on inner mitochondrial membrane, matrix side.
What does Desmolase require for reaction?
3 molecules of NADPH
3 molecules of O2
2 types of Cytochrome P450 in the mitochondria:
-P45011B (beta)
General reaction catalyzed by cytochrome P450's:
RH + O2 + NADPH + H+ --> ROH + H2O + NADP+
What pathway is especially ramped up in steroidogenic tissues?
PPP = hmp shunt
What is essential for the action of P450 enzymes?
An electron transport chain
What are the 4 electron shuttles that make up mitochondrial ETC?
-Adrenodoxin reductase
-P450scc or 11B
What happens when electrons get to the heme group of P450scc?
Activate O2 to hydrolyze a 6-C side chain off cholesterol, which makes Pregnenalone.
What cofactor is used by
-Adrenodoxin reductase?
-Cyto P450?
Adrndxn reductase = FAD
Adrenodoxin = Iron-Sulfur group
Cytochrome P450 = Heme ring
Which shuttler is mobile?
Where are Glucocorticoids made?
Adrnl cortex - Zona Fasciculata
In which cell compartments are glucocorticoids made?
-Endoplasmic reticulum
What are the 3 sources of Cholesterol for glucocorticoid synthesis?
-De novo synth via AcCoA (minor)
-High LDL receptor expression
-SR-B1 receptor (HDL)
What is the difference between ETC's used for mitochondrial versus ER P450 enzymes?
Mito: requires 2 proteins between NADPH and P450scc
ER: only one protein needed (no adrenodoxin FeSulfur protein).
What is the name of the protein used in place of Adrenodoxin in the ER etc for P450?
NADPH Cytochrome P450 Reductase
What is the cofactor used by NADPH Cyto P450 Reductase?
Flavin (FAD)
So what is the first step of glucocorticoid synthesis? Where?
Conversion of Cholesterol to Pregnenalone in Mitochondria.