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75 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Define memory
the means by which we retain and draw on our past experiences to use this information in the present
Name 3 common operations of memory
encoding, storage, and retrieval
define memory encoding
transform sensory data into a form of mental representation
define memory storage
keeping endoded information in memory
define memory retrieval
Pulling out or using information stored in memory
explicit-memory task
You must consciously recall particular information.
eg: Who wrote Moby Dick?
Declarative-knowledge task
You must recall facts.
eg: What is your first name?
Name 3 types of recall task
Serial- recall, free-recall, cued-recall
Define serial-recall
You must repeat the items in a list in the exact order in which you heard or read them.
Define free-recall
You must repeat the items in a list in any order in which you can recall them
Define cued-recall
You must memorize a list of paired items; then when you are given one item in the pair, you must recall the mate for that item.
recognition task
you must select or otherwise identify an item as being one that you learned previously. eg: multiple choice
Implicit-memory tasks
You must draw on infromation in memory without consciously realizing that you are doing so.
Tasks involving procedural knowledge
You must remember learned skills and automatic behaviors, rather than facts.
Define priming
The process by which particular initial stimuli activate mental pathways, thereby enhancing the ability to process subsequent stimuli related to the priming stimuli in some way; the activation of a node by a prime (activating node) to which the node is connected in a network.
What is the function of primary memory
to hold temporary information currently in use
What is the function of secondary memory
to hold information permanently or at least for a very long time.
What are the 3 memory stores
Sensory store, short-term store, long-term store
What is the function of sensory store
capable of storing relatively limited amounts of information for very brief periods
What is the function of short-term store
capable of storing information for somewhat longer periods, but also relatively limited capacity
What is the function of long-term store
very large capacity, capable of storing information for very long periods, perhaps even indefinitely.
Are the terms 'stores' and 'memory' interchangable?
Yes. eg: short-term store, short-term memory
define hypothetical constructs
concepts that are not themselves directly measurable or observable, but that serve as mental models for understanding how a psychological phenomenon, such as memory, works.
define iconic store
a discrete visual sensory register, so called because information is believed by some to be stored in the form of icons (visual images that represent something; icons usually resemble whatever is being represented)
What is the difference between 'whole report procedure' and 'partial report procedure'?
WRP-participant reports EVERY symbol they have seen.
PRP- participant only needs to report PART of what they saw. (pg.154 diagram)
Is a person able to distinguish from what they see in iconic memory and what they actually see in the environment?
No, what they see in iconic memory is what is tanke to be in the environment
Can iconic memory be erased? If so, why?
Yes. The erasable nature of iconic memory definitely makes our visual sensations more sensible.
define backwards visual masking
placement of one stimulus where another one had appeared previously. This erases previous visual icons.
Summerize the process of sensory storage
Visual information appears to enter our memory sustem through an iconic store that holds the visual information for very short periods. In the normal course of events, this information either may be transferred to another store or erased if other information is superimposed on it before there is sufficient time for the transfer of the information to another memory store.
What is held in short-term store
short term store holds not only a few items, but also some control processes that regulate the flow of information to and from the long term store.
How long does information stay in short term storage
typically, about 30 seconds unless it is rehearsed to retain it.
Is information stored acoustically (by the way it sounds) or visually (by the way it looks)?
What is the short term memory capacity for a wide range of itemes
7 items plus or minus 2
Define chunking
taking small units and grouping them into larger ones, making them easier to recall
How does the number of syllables we pronounce affect the number of items we can recall
when each item has a larger number of syllables, we can recall fewer items.
How does delay or interference affect item capacity
It can drop a 7 item capacity to about 3 items.
Nancy Waugh and Donald Norman proposed a mathematical technique for estimating the capacity of the short term store applied to free recall, what does this suggest?
Computations based on their technique suggest that the capacity of the short term store under these conditions is roughly two to tree items.
How long can information be held in long term store
there is no proof that there is an absloute outer limit to how long information can be stored
Who coined the term 'permastore' and what does it mean
Bahrick (1984) coined 'permastore' for the very long term storage of at least some information, such as knowledge of a foreing language and of mathematics.
What is levels of processing
memory does not comprise three or even any specific number of separate stores. Rather, storage varies along a contiuous dimension in terms of depth of encoding.
The deeper the level of processing that an item is stored at relates to what?
The higher the probability that an item may be retrieved
Name 3 different levels of processing in progressive order of depth.
Physical, Acoustic, and Semantic.
Define self-reference effect.
participants show very high levels of recall when asked to relate words meaningully to themselves by determining whether the words describe themselves.
True or False: The highest level of recall occurs with words that people consider self-descriptive??
Define Physical level of processing
Visually apparent features of the letters.

Question: is the word written in capital letters?
Acoustic level of processing
Sound combinations associated with the letters.
Word: CAT
Question: Does the word rhyme with MAT
Semantic level of processing
Meaning of the word
question: Is the word a type of plant?
When do we demonstrate a much higher level of recall; When we generate our own cues, or when they are generated for us?
when we generate our own cues.
true or false: The sequence of the levels of encoding may not be as important as the match between the type of elaboration of the encoding adn the type of task required for retrieval
define 'within item elaboration
elaborates encoding of the particular item in terms of its characteristics-including the various levels of processing
define between-item elaborations
elaborates encoding by relating each item's features to the feature of items already in memory
define episodic buffer
a limited-capacity system that is capable of binding informations from the subsidaiary systems and from long term memory into a unitary episodic representation; that is, this component integrates information from different parts of working memory so that they make sense to us.
true or false: We use the same memory systems for organizing and storing information with a distinctive time referent as we do for information that has no particular time referent.
Semantic memory
general wold knowledge-our memory for facts that are not unique to us and that are not recalled in any particular temproal context.
episodic memory
personally experienced events or episodes
True or False: Lisions in the frontal lobe appear to affect recollection regarding WHEN a stimulaus was presented, without affecting recall or recognition memory THAT a particular stimulus was presented.
Name the 5 memory systems proposed by Schacter (2000)
episodic, semantic, perceptual (recognizing things on the basis of their form and structure), procedural, and working.
Define spreading activations
the activation of one node may prompt activation of a connected node.
True or false: A node that activates a connected node is termed a PRIME, and the resulting activation is termed the priming effect.
What is the term for a person with outstanding memory abilities?
define synesthesia
the person experiences some sensations in a sensory modality different from the sense that was phusically stimulated.
eg: wonvert a sound into a visual impression or even taste and weight.
Define verbal translations
Memorizing numbers by transforming them into dates and then thinking about what had been done on that day
define amnesia
severe loss of explicit memory
define retrograde amnesia
individuals lose their purposeful memory for events prior to whatever trauma induces memory loss
define infantile amnesia
the inability to recall events that happened when we were very young
define anterograde amnesia
great difficulty remembering events that occurred from the time of trauma onwards. Although recollection of events prior to the truama are in tact.
True or false: the effects of amnesia typically impair implicit memory and not explicit memory
Pople with lesions in the ____ parietal lobe of the brain show profound inability to retain information in short-term memory, but no impairment of long term memory
Persons with leasions in the _______ temporal regions of the brain show relatively normal short term memory of verbal materials, but serious inablity to retain new verbal materials in long term memory
medial (middle)
What is the main role of the hippocampus in the encoding of decalarative information
the integration and consolidation of separate sensory information and, most importanly, the transfer of newly synthesized information into long term structures supporting declarative knowledge, perhaps as a means of cross-referencing information stored in different parts of the brain.
What is the primary structure controlling procedural knowledge.
basal ganglia
what is the structure responsible in memory for classically conditioned responses and contributes to many cognitive tasks in general
True or False: BOTH serotonin and acetylcholine seem to enhance neural transmission associated with memory.
Low concentrations of acetylcholine ahve been found in the hippocampus of what group of people.
people with alzheimer's disease.
define korsakoff's syndrome and the cause of it.
a devastating form of anterograde amnesia, often accompanied by at least some retrograde amnesia and is caused by prolonged alcohol abuse.