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18 Cards in this Set

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what to do when materials can't stand up to autoclave
tyndallize - flow hot steam over materials, slower, fractional
3 ways to use hto steam for sterilization:
-autoclave
-tyndallize
-inspissation
inspissation
thickening through evaporation; used on mycobacteria's high-protein media that can't be autoclaved
most common type of filter for sterilizing
millipore
what is filtering used for?
sterilizing things that can't be heated like body fluids, urea, carbs.
most frequent chemical used for sterilizing: what materials?
ethylene oxide for plastic petri dishes, pipettes, etc.
definition of disinfectant
killing of vegetative organisms; not necess. spores!
what interferes with disinfectants?
PROTEIN; must denature w/ detergent before using disinfectant.
what test evaluates the activity of other disinfectants?
the PHENOL COEFFICIENT TEST; its such a powerful disinfectant that it holds the bar high
definition of ANTISEPSIS
killing/inhibiting of organisms on the skin. doesn't hurt the tissue, so milder than disinfectant.
2 common types of Antiseptics
-mercurochrome
-tincture of iodine
2 classes of chemicals:
A. affect surface layers of cell
B. denature cellular proteins, thus reduce enzyme activity
what do surface active chemicals do?

examples?
affect cell membrane permeability.

quaternary ammonium compounds
3 chemicals that denature cell membrane
-phenols
-cresols
-bis-phenols

LYSOL is a cresol
4 chemicals that denature cellular proteins and therefore reduce enzyme activity
-acid
-alkali
-alcohol
-acetone
last five chemicals that denature cell proteins:
-heavy metals -mercury, arsenic, silver
-oxidizing agents (iodine/chlorine, h2o2, permanganate)
-formaldehyde
-ethylene oxide
-dyes - crystal violet!
action of lysol
denatures the cell membrane
does tyndallization kill spores?
no; so you do it for 30 min on 3 consecutive days to allow spores to germinate between tyndalilizations