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31 Cards in this Set

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Causes of delayed wound healing
Malnourishment-zinc,magnesium,copper deficiency, Smoking, Obesity, Anemia, Diabetes, Cancer, Steroid treatment, Hypovolemia, Hypoxia, Immune system compromise, prolonged surgery > 3hrs., Emergency surgery
Complications
Dehiscence:
Total or partial opening of a wound or incision

Evisceration:
Protrusion of a viscera through abdominal wound.
Bandages:
Secures dressings
Applies pressure
Supports wound

**unsually rolled guaze, Kerlix, Kling or ace of various widths (1-6 inches)
Key concepts to Bandages:
Circulation checks are essential
-warmth
Appearence
-color
-edema
Mobility
Sensation
-numbness
-tingling
5 "P" Circulation check
Pallor
Paresthesis
Pain
Pulselessness
Paralysis
Bandage Key Concepts cont.
Need not be Sterile.
Wrap tight enough to hold without constricting blood flow.
Avoid bandaging over wrinked dressings to prevent pressure.
Avoid bandaging over solied dressings.
Apply bandage distal to proximal to facilitate venous return.
Circular Turns
To cover small cylindrical areas.
To anchor bandage before starting another type wrap/
Spiral Turns
To secure dressings.
To wrap an extremity when contour does not very significally.
Reverse Spiral
To secure dressing.
To wrap an extremity when circumference changes significantly.
Figure Eight
To secure dressings.
To wrap an extremity on or near a joint.
Recurrent
To secure dressing on scalp or stump.
May be compression dressing on stump.
Key concepts related to Binders/Supports
Designed for a specific body part.
Generally made of cloth or elasric material with velco fasteners.
Used to hold bandages in place.
Used to support tissues.
Used to immobilize or splint.
Used around the chest, abdomen, or pelvis.
T Binders
Belt around waist with tails to secure pads b/t legs.
-Single
-females to secure dressings on rectum, perineum, or groin.
_Double
_Males to secure dressings on rectum, perieum, groin.
Straight
-Abdomen or chest
-Appied for support when pt.is ambulating, coughing, rig fractures.
-Apply while pt.is laying in bed.
Slings
-Support of upper extremity
-Triangle cloth may be used.
-Fasten off center behind neck to avoid rubbing on Cervical vertebra.
Orthopedic Splints/Orthopedic Immobilizers
Knee
Shoulder
Neck
Foot
-shoe
Principles of applying Bandages and Binders
-Unclean bandages and binders may cause infection if appied over a wound or skin abrasion-
-First cover site with sterile dressing.
-Next appy clean bandage or binder
-Wash or replace soiled bandages or binders.
Principles of Applying Bandages or Binders
Prolonged heat and moisture on skin may cause epithelial cells to deterorate.
-Avoid unnecessarily thick bandages.
-Avoid excessive heat.
-Use porous materials to allow air circulation and evaporation of perspiration.
Principles for applying Bandages and Binders
Place and support body part to be bandaged in normal functioning position.
-Prevents deformities and discomfort.
-Enhances circulation.
Principles for applying Bandages and Binders
Avoid excessive pressure on blood vessels.
-Assess circulation by leaving small area of an extremity exposed.
-fingers, toes
-Avoid inconsistent wraps which allow swelling in unwraped contigous areas.
-heels if foot and leg are bandaged.
Principles for applying Bandages and Binders
Tension on each part of the bandage should be uniform
-Pervents undue/uneven pressure.
-Hollow areas may be filled with padding to provide comfort and maintain pressure.
Principles for applying Bandages and Binders
Place pins or knots well away from wound, tender areas or pressure points.
-Can cause undue/uneven pressure and/or discomfort.
Six Principles of Bandaging
-Unclean bandages and binders may cause infection if applied over a wound or skin abrasion.
-Prolonged heat & moisture on skin can cause epithelial cells to deteriorate.
-Place and support part to be bandaged in normal functioning position.
-Avoid excessive pressure on blood vessels.
-Tension on each part of the bandage should be uniform.
-Place pins/knots well away from wound, tender ares or pressure point.
Heat Application
Causes Vasodilation
- blood flow
- nutrient circulation
Relieves pain from muscles spams or imjured joint.
Can reduce swelling by  circulation.
Eliminates toxic waste products that accumulate in swollen areas.
Promoted healing by  oxygenation to tissues.
Use for Heat Application
-Surgical Wounds
-Hemorrhoids
-Episiotomies
-Phlebitis
-IV Infilration
-Low Back Pain
-Arthritis
-Muscle Spams
-Cramps
Methods of Applying Heat
-Water-flow heating pad(K-pads)
-Instant hot packs
-Hot water bottles
-Electric heating pads
-Thermal warming blankets
-Sitz baths
-Warm soaks-limited to 20-30 mins
Cold Application
-Causes Vasoconstriction
-In early wound management
-controls bleeding
-controls edema
-reduces pain
Uses for Cold Application
-Fractures
-Trauma
-Lacerations
-Puncture wounds
-Insect bites
-Sprains
-Sports injuries
-Arthritis
Methods for Cold Application
-Ice Collar
-Ice Bag
-Instant ice pack
-Frozen bagged veggies
-Thermal cooling blanket
Concerns related to Heat and Cold Treatment
-Age of PT.
-Level of consciousness
-Circulatory problems
-Sensory deficits
-PT. diagnosis
Nursing Diagnosis
-Risk for Injury
-Pain
-Ineffective Thermoregulation
-Hyperthermia
-Hypothermia