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26 Cards in this Set

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Lutembacher syndrome
Ostium secundum ASD + Mitral stenosis together is called lutembacher syndrome.
3 types of ASD?
Ostium secundum - Due to patent foramen Ovale

Sinus venous - Opening at the junction of SVC and atria

Ostium primum - Opening low in the atrial septum (close to the tricuspid valve)
Most common cardiac anomaly in adults..

Most common cardiac anomaly..

Most common cyanotic cardiac anomaly...
ASD

VSD

TOF
Roger's disease
When muscular defects result in VSD.
Eisenmenger's syndrome or Eisenmenger's reaction
Eisenmenger's syndrome or Eisenmenger's reaction is defined as the process in which a left-to-right shunt in the heart causes increased flow through the pulmonary vasculature, causing pulmonary hypertension, which in turn, causes increased pressures in the right side of the heart and reversal of the shunt into a right-to-left shunt. (IMP - FLOW REVERSAL - NOW ITS RIGHT TO LEFT)
Tetralogy of falot consists of...
(1) Over-riding Aorta
(2) Pulmonary stenosis
(3) VSD
(4) RV hypertrophy
BNP levels are specific for...
ventricular dilation
List some congenital heart anomalies that present with cyanosis.
TOF, TOGA, Tricuspid Atresia, Persistent Truncus, Obstruction (coarctation of aorta)
Turner syndrome is associated with which congenital heart defect?

Maternal Rubella is associated with...

Down Syndrome...
Preductal Coarctation of aorta

PDA (Inflammation, PG levels are high)

Complete AVSD
What defines partial AVSD?
(1) Ostium primum and cleft ant mitral leaflet

Results in mitral insufficiency
"Rib notching" is seen due to...
collateral circulation during coarcation of aorta.
Physiological split versus paradoxical split.
Both are split S2 sound.

Physiological split...during inspiration, negative pressure increases and PV closes late. (increased blood flow to pulmonary system ). Hence splitS2 due to PV closure delay during inspiration.

Paradoxical split....due to Aortic stenosis. During expiration, pulmonic pressure increases resulting in more blood in LV and causing a delay in closure of Aortic valve. So paradoxical split is SplitS2 due to delay in aortic valve closure.
Aschoff Bodies
Aschoff bodies. They consist of foci of swollen eosinophilic collagen surrounded by lymphocytes (primarily T cells), occasional plasma cells, and plump macrophages called Anitschkow cells (pathognomonic for RF).
Anitschkow cells
modified monocytes [possibly myocytes] that look like “caterpillar cells”.

Pathogenomic for RF.
Sydenham's chorea
Involvement of basal ganglia.

neurologic disorder with involuntary purposeless, rapid movements.
MacCallum's patch
Fibrosis of endocardium of left atrium (part of the chronic change of RF)
Libman Sachs endocarditis
Associated with SLE

Medium sized vegetations found on both sides of valves
Why are carcinoid plaques found only on right side of heart?
These plaques are formed due to Serotonin and Bradykinin.

Serotonin and Bradykinin are broken down in lungs by MAO. Hence, their plaques are not found on let side of heart.
Signs of cardiac temponade..
(1) Becks' triad - soft heart sound, inc jugular venous pressure and dec BP

(2) Pulsus paradoxus (Drop in BP during inspiration...During cardiac temponade RV bulges into LV and decreases return of blood during inspiration; this causes sig drop in BP)
Dressler's Syndrome...
Pericarditis seen 1-3 weeks after a MI. Autoimmune disorder; patient presents with fever, pericarditis and inc ESR.
How does aortic stenosis sound via auscultation?
Crescendo-decrescendo midsystolic murmur with paradoxically split S2 during expiration
Water hammer pulse with head bob
Associated with AR due to wide aortic pulse pressure
Characterstic sound heard for MS?
Opening snap and rumbling late diastolic murmur
What are the criteria for diagnosing RHD?
Jones Criteria (2 major or 1 major + 2 minor)

Major criteria - C JENS P FAITH - Carditis, Joints (polyarthritis), Erythema, Nodules, Sydenham's chorea

Minor - PR interval, Fever, Arthralgia, Inc ESR and CRP, Hx of RF
ASO test can be used to confirm what kind of infection?
ASO Test - for Group A beta hemolytic strep (strep pyogenes) infection
What is MacCollum's patch?
Fibrosis of endocardium of LA after RHD.