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13 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Verruca Vulgaris
Wart of the skin.

An example of viral induced hyperplasia. Due to increased number of epidermal keratinocytes.
Cholera Toxin (how does it effect signaling pathways)?
Inhibits breakdown of Gs-GTP. (on switch remains on)
Pertussis Toxin - How does it effect signaling pathway?
Inhibits formation of Gi-GTP. (off switch remains off longer - same effect as cholera toxin)
How does viagra work?

Why does it result in visual disturbances?
Viagra inhibits PDE. Specifically PDE5 which is found in vascular EC. Hence, cAMP is active for longer time and this results in vasodilation.

Viagra shows high affinity to PDE5 and PDE6. PDE6 is found in the cornea, hence the side effects.
Zellweger's syndrome
Congenital disorder characterized by abnormal peroxisomes.

Causes severe damage and liver failure.
Fatty change of heart.

Caused by Corynebacterium Diptheriae (D in DPT). Diptheria exotoxin blocks protein synthesis by inactivating EF2.

Findings: Pseudomembrane formation of larynx, Fatty change of heart
Chronic Granulomatous Disease

Defecting NADPH oxidase (req'd for oxidative burst)

(1) Recurrent infections with catalase positive bacteria (2) Abnormal Nitroblue Tetrazolim test
Chediak Higashi Syndrome


Abnormal of fusion of phagosome and lysosome due to abnormal microtubules

(1) Albinism (abnormal formation of melanocytes) (2) Giant lysosomes in leukocytes (3) Recurrent infection with pyogenic bacteria (4) Aggresive lymphoproliferative disease resulting in (5) pancytopenia and death
Immune Dysregulation polyendocrinopathy enteropathy and X linked syndrome (IPAX)


Deficient in FoxP3 (transcriptional repressor found in Treg cell)

(1) Fatal autoimmune disorder directed against a variety of tissues
Trypanosoma Brucei

Alternate Name:
African Sleeping Sickness

Gene rearrangement in this parasite causes its surface glycoprotein to change and requires greater immune response.

(1) Heavy immune complex deposition and inflammation (2) Neurologic coma leading to coma (hence the alternate name)
Bernard Soulier Disease
Decreased Gp1b receptor on the platelets. Gp1b receptor on the platlets binds to vWF, vital in platlet adhesion as part of the coagulation.
Glanzamen's Thrombasthenia
Decreased GpIIb/IIIa interaction with fibrinogen.

(required for platlet aggregation)
Heparin induced thrombocytopenia
Heparin produces anti-bodies that bind to platlets and cause clot formation.

HITT - 1% of patients who get thrombosis. Do not give patients platlets and use low-molecular weight heparins.