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37 Cards in this Set

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chediak-Higashi Syndrome
Defect in microtubule polymerization. Causes defects in cytoplasmic granules - delayed fusion of phagosomes+lysosomes -> can't eat bacteria, increased fusion of melanosomes -> albinism, and granular defects in NK cells and platelets
I-Cell diseases
defect in phosphorylation of mannose -- catalyzed by N-acetylglucosamine-phosphotransferase.
Mucolipidosis II
another name for I-cell disease. defeciency in N-acetylglucosamine-phosphotransferase
Physical characteristics of I-cell dz?
skeletal abnormalities, coarse facial features, psychomotor retard.
Peroxisome def.
no peroxisome/ bad function. fail to oxidize Very long chain FA's, accumulate bile acid precursors. disorders: Zellweger, Neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy, infantile refsum dz, hyperpipecolatemia.
from defect in golgi cleavage of proinsulin. get non-insulin dependant DM.
Intermediate filaments:--where r they found--
Glial fibrillary acidic protein
Cytokeratin - in epithelial tissue
Desmin - in sm. muscle + Z disks of skeletal and cardiac muscle
Vimentin - in cells of mesenchymal origins (endothelium, fibroblasts, chondroblasts, vascular sm. muscle)
Neurofib - in neurons
Glial - in astrocytes
AI disorder - causes disruption of desmosomes linking keratinocytes. -- splits up cells above the basement membrane - IN THE EPIDERMIS
Bullous Pemphigoid
AI disorder - SPLITS cells at DERMAL/EPIDERMAL junction. Will see IgG against antigen in lamina lucida.
Eisenmenger complex
VSD - initially left-to right (NO CYANOSIS) shunt causing pulmonary htn. get very high pulmonary resistance from proliferation of tunica intima/media of pulmonary vessels. Cause right to left shunting and cyanosis.
tetralogy of fallot
1) pulmonary stenosis
2) overriding aorta
3) VSD
4) Right ventricular hypertrophy.
AP septum fails to align properly/develop. Get right-left shunting of blood with cyanosis.
fetal right and left umbilical arteries become what in adults?
medial umbilical ligaments
medial umbilical ligament
develop from fetal umbilical arteries
median umbilical ligament
remnant of the urachus
fetal umbilical vien
becomes the ligamentus teres in adults
fetal hematopoesis -- sequence of organs involved
1) Yolk Sac
2) Liver
3) Spleen
4) Thymus
5) Bone marrow
patent ductus arteriosus
--what keeps it open in fetus?
Prostaglandin E and neonatal asphyxia
seen in premie's and maternal rubella infections.
PDA=LEFT-to-RIGHT shunt! - pulls O2 blood into lungs!
Drugs to close patent ductus arteriosus?
prostaglandin inhibitors: indomethacin, acetylcholine, histamine, catecholamines ...
Insertion of iliopsoas?
From transverse processes of lumbar vertebrae - to LESSER TROCHANTER of FEMUR
Function of iliopsoas?
Chief flexor of hip!
Spermatic Fascias - where are they derived from?
External oblique - makes external spermatic fascia
Internal oblique fascia - makes cremasteric muscle/fascia
Transveralis fascia - makes internal spermatic fascia
What is the arcuate line?
Between umbilicus and pubic symphisis - horizontal.
Defines where rectus abdominis muscle is not surrounded by aponeurotic fibers below that point. Above this, the rectus abdominis has equal posterior and anterior layers to the rectus sheath
Roof of inguinal canal?
Anterior wall of canal?
Posterior wall?
Roof - Internal abdominal oblique and transverse abdominal muscle
Anterior - External oblique and int. abdomal oblique tissue
Floor - Inguinal ligament
Posterior - transversalis fascia
Epiploic foramen of winslow - what does it allow connectin between?
Greater and lesser omental / bursae
Finger in epiploic foramen touches what anteriorly and what posteriorly?
Anter: Hepatoduodenal ligament
poster: IVC
What are peritoneal organs?
What does secondary retroperitoneal mean?
stomach, liver/gallbladder, spleen, beginning of duodenum, tail of pancreas, jejunum, ileum, appendix, transverse colon, sigmoid colon.
Secondary retro means that organs were initially free -- then got attached to peritoneal wall and became retro.
Which are secondary retroperitoneal organs?
most of duodenum, most of pancreas, ascending/descending colon, upper rectum
Which are primary retroperitoneal organs?
Kidny, adrenals, ureter, aorta, IVC, lower rectum, anal canal.
What is in hepatoduodenal ligament?
Common bile duct, proper hepatic artery, hepatic portal vien
What is in falciform ligament?
Ligamentum teres.
what is ligamentum teres?
old umbilical vien! Now in falciform ligament where liver meets the abdominal wall. Should not normally see on x-ray!
What makes up the lesser omentum?
Hepatoduodenal lig. and hepatogastric lig.
Campylobacter and Influenza - what is a possible complication?
Guillain-Barre syndrome
Helicobacter triad treatment?
Amoxicillin + clarithromycin + PPI (omeprazole)
MacConkey Agar - differentiates what kind of bacteria?
Enterobacteriacaea - determines which are lactose fermenting.
Which are enterobacteria are lactose fermenting?
CEEK - Citrobacter, E.Coli, Enterobacter, Klebsiella
Which enterobacteria are nonlactose fermenters?
Shigella + Yersinia (non H2S producers, non motile)
Proteus+Salmonella (Motile, H2S producers)