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### 22 Cards in this Set

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 The observed variable that is expected to change as a result of changes in the independent variable in an experiment. dependent variable A number that conveys a particular characteristic of a set of data. descriptive statistic The study or theory of the nature of knowledge. epistemology Variable other than the independent variable that may affect the dependent variable. extraneous variable Variable controlled by the researcher; changes in this variable may produce changes in the dependent variable. independent variable Method of reaching conclusions about unmeasurable populations that uses sample evidence and probability. inferential statistics Measurement scale in which equal differences between numbers represent equal differences in the thing measured. The zero point is arbitrarily defined. interval scale One value of the independent variable. level Bottom of the range of possible values that a measurement on a quantitative variable can take. lower limit Arithmetic average; sum of scores divided by number of scores. mean Measurement scale in which numbers serve only as labels and do not indicate any quantitative relationship. nominal scale Measurement scale in which numbers are ranks; equal differences between numbers do not represent equal differences between the things measured. ordinal scale Numerical or nominal characteristic of a population. parameter All measurements of a specified group. population Variable whose levels are different kinds, not different amounts. qualitative variable Variable whose levels indicate different amounts. quantitative variable Measurement scale with characteristics of interval scale; plus zero means that none of the things measured is present. ratio scale A subset of a population that may or may not be representative. sample A numerical or nominal characteristic of a sample. statistic One value (or level) of the independent variable. treatment The top of the range of possible values that a measurement on a quantitative variable can take. upper limit Something that exists in more than one amount or in more than one form. variable