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32 Cards in this Set

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probability
# of outcomes classified as A/total # of possible outcomes
What are the requirements for a random sample?
Each individual has to have an equal chance of being selected; independent random sampling
inferential statistics
looking for noticeable difference
sampling distribution
all possible sample means
sampling error
natural discrepancy between a sample statistic and population parameter
expected value of M
µ
σM
standard error of M-how much error between M and µ
sample size
as n increases σM decreases
how do you calculate standard error of M?
σ/√n or
hypothesis test
statistical method that uses sample data to evaluate a hypothesis about a population
type 1 error
reject null hypothesis that is actually true
type II error
failure to reject null that is really false
What effects the size of the mean difference?
numerator of the z-score; larger difference=increased likelihood of treatment effect
What effects the variability of he scores?
standard error, the number of scores in the sample
Increased variability
= deceased likelihood of treatment effect
Increased number of scores
= increased likelihood of treatment effect
What is the effect size?
measurement of the absolute magnitude of a treatment effect
statistical power
probability of correctly rejecting a false H0 or fail to reject H0
What is a t-statistic?
test hypothesis about an unknown population when σ is unknown
DF
number of scores in a sample that are independent
What are the factors that influence the t statistic?
sample size (increasing scores=increased likelihood if treatment effect, sample variance (large variance=decreased likelihood of treatment effect).
independent measures
two sets of data from two different groups, representative sample
Hartley F-Max Test
tests for homogeneity of variance
repeated measures
single sample measured more than once, compare across conditions
matched subject design
1 subject matched to another on important characteristics: age, gender, IQ
What term is used to identify the mean of the distribution of sample means?
the expected value of M
Under what circumstance will the distribution of sample means be normal?
If the population is normal or if the sample size is greater than 30
The Central Limit Theorem
the standard error for a sample mean becomes smaller, approaching zero, and the sample size approaches infinity.
Describe a hypothesis test
an inferential technique that uses data from a sample to draw inferences about a population
Under what circumstances can a very small treatment effect still be signifcant?
if the sample size is very large.
What is the difference between a t statistic and a z-score?
The t statistic uses the sample variance in place of the population variance
What is measured by the estimated standard error?
the average distance between a sample mean and the population mean