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### 32 Cards in this Set

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 probability # of outcomes classified as A/total # of possible outcomes What are the requirements for a random sample? Each individual has to have an equal chance of being selected; independent random sampling inferential statistics looking for noticeable difference sampling distribution all possible sample means sampling error natural discrepancy between a sample statistic and population parameter expected value of M µ σM standard error of M-how much error between M and µ sample size as n increases σM decreases how do you calculate standard error of M? σ/√n or hypothesis test statistical method that uses sample data to evaluate a hypothesis about a population type 1 error reject null hypothesis that is actually true type II error failure to reject null that is really false What effects the size of the mean difference? numerator of the z-score; larger difference=increased likelihood of treatment effect What effects the variability of he scores? standard error, the number of scores in the sample Increased variability = deceased likelihood of treatment effect Increased number of scores = increased likelihood of treatment effect What is the effect size? measurement of the absolute magnitude of a treatment effect statistical power probability of correctly rejecting a false H0 or fail to reject H0 What is a t-statistic? test hypothesis about an unknown population when σ is unknown DF number of scores in a sample that are independent What are the factors that influence the t statistic? sample size (increasing scores=increased likelihood if treatment effect, sample variance (large variance=decreased likelihood of treatment effect). independent measures two sets of data from two different groups, representative sample Hartley F-Max Test tests for homogeneity of variance repeated measures single sample measured more than once, compare across conditions matched subject design 1 subject matched to another on important characteristics: age, gender, IQ What term is used to identify the mean of the distribution of sample means? the expected value of M Under what circumstance will the distribution of sample means be normal? If the population is normal or if the sample size is greater than 30 The Central Limit Theorem the standard error for a sample mean becomes smaller, approaching zero, and the sample size approaches infinity. Describe a hypothesis test an inferential technique that uses data from a sample to draw inferences about a population Under what circumstances can a very small treatment effect still be signifcant? if the sample size is very large. What is the difference between a t statistic and a z-score? The t statistic uses the sample variance in place of the population variance What is measured by the estimated standard error? the average distance between a sample mean and the population mean