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10 Cards in this Set

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Start of chapter 2 Sources of research include - and -. --: -- observation of --/-- behaviour. --: -- -- observations, --, --, --,--.
Unsystematic and Systematic observation. Unsystematic: causual observation of animal/ human behaviour. Systematic: carefully planned personal observvations, published research reports, ongoing reserch, previous or own.
Developing research questions-- observations such questions are --, and terms must be-- --.
Ojective observation such questions are empirical. And terms must be operationally defined.
Research is important if 3. Unimportant if 3.
1)Clarify relationship amoung variables 2) Support only one hypothesis 3) answer leads to practical application. 1) answer already firmly established 2)variables are known to have a small effect/ theoritcal interest 3)variables not believed to be causally related
Hypothesis: a -- -- about a relationship subjected to -- -- law: relationship that has recievced -- -- and not subjected to 00, model: -- implimention of a general theory.
Hypothesis: specific statment, empirical testing. Substantial support, disconfirmation. Specific implimenation
Theories play an important role in science 3)
1) to help us to understand phenomena 3)predict relationships 4)organize and interpret data- even if not correct
A good theory must be
1)Must account for most of the datat within its domain 2)Explanatory relevance-- believable 3)Must be testifiable empirically 4)Account for novel explanation- n for new. 5) must be parcimonious
Theory is a set of related -- about the causes of a -- and the -- that specify how - - --.
assumptions phenomenon, rules specific causes act.
Ways of testing theories 3)
Confirmationa: more confidence in a theory proves what it set out to prove, expected outcomes do occur. Disconfirmational unexpected outcomes do occur. Stong infernce, pitting opposing theories against each other.
Start of Chapter 4
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