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74 Cards in this Set
 Front
 Back
When is oneway ANOVA used?

one DV
one IV three or more levels of the IV (Can use ANOVA with 2 levels) 

What are the 2 sources of variance in the oneway ANOVA

Treatment variance
Error variance 

What type of size values (large or small) do we want the 2 sources of variance to be

Treatment variance LARGE
Error variance small 

How is ANOVA represented

"F"
F= Treatment variance/Error variance the bigger the "F" value, the more likely to reject the null 

What does ANOVA stand for

Analysis of Variance


What is the Error variance attributed to

participants


What can affect the participants

environment: causes participants to react diff when assessed on the DV
history: causes diff. responses to treatment 

Equation
Degrees of Freedom for ANOVA 
F = MSbetween/MSerror
MSmean squared MS = SS/N or SS/N1 SS: Sum of Squares N: sample size for population N1: sample size for sample 

What is the difference between MSb and MSe

with the "b", it is the number of groups (k)1
with the "e", it is the total number of participants (Nk) 

What are the seven steps in ANOVA

1)State the null
2)Oneway ANOVA (equation F=) Assumptions 3)alpha=0.05 4)Criteria for rejecting the null (p<0.05) 5)run the test 6)Accept/reject the null 7)Post Hoc Test 8)conclusion 

When do you reject the null for ANOVA

when there are more than 2 groups only tells us that AT LEAST 2 of the groups are different


What is the Tukey Post Hoc test

Pairwise comparisons between means


What is one of the most used Post Hoc tests

Tukey
can be used to determine which pair of means are different controls against type 1 errors 

After using the Post Hoc test, when do you reject the null

if the mean difference (absolute value) is greater than or equal to the Tukey contrast value


When are Bivariate Correlation used

When there are two different variables that have been measured


What would the investigator be interested in with Bivariate Correlation

In determining if there is a relationship between the two variables


True or False
If a relationship is found between variables, that indicates a cause and effect 
FALSE
i.e. Height and weight in adults...incr, in weight does not mean an incr. in height 

When r=1.00 in correlation...

Considered a perfect positive correlation or relationship between the variables
Scores high/low for both variables 

When r=1.00 in correlation...

Considered a perfect negative correlation or relationship
Score high for one variable, but low for the other 

What are used to view relationships between variables

Scatterplots


What is the most common type of correlation

moderately positive/negative correlation


What are the positive descriptors used with correlation

r=1.00  .80 Strong pos.
r=.80  .40 Moderate pos. r=.40  0 Weak pos. 

What are the negative descriptors used with correlation

r=0 to .40 Weak neg
r=.40 to .80 Moderate neg r=.80 to  1.00 strong neg 

In what ways can correlations may be used (3)

1.Determine the relationship between 2 variables
2.Determine the reliability of a measuring instrument 3.Determine the validity of a test 

What is assumed with correlation techniques

there is a linear (straight) line relationship between variables


How is assumption with correlation techniques checked

by drawing and looking at the line of best fit


Correlation Techniques
Person Product Moment Correlation 
This is a parametric technique that is symbolized by a small letter "r"


Correlation Techniques
Spearman Correlation 
This is a nonparametric technique also symbolized using "r"


What are the assumptions for Person Product Moment Correlation

1)one group randomly selected from the population of interest
2)both measured variables be interval/ratio data type 3)Data on each variable must be normally distributed 4)variables must have a linear relationship to each other 5)variances of the two variable must be equal 

What is the Homoscedasticity assumption

Assumption asks if the variances of data points are equally distanced from the line of best fit


How do we determine if the Homoscedasticity assumption is met

ellipse shape circles are drawn around the points to decide if assumption is met


What is the seven step procedure for Pearson Product Moment r

1)Write the null
2)get the Pearson Product Moment r formula 3)determine the alpha level 4)Determine the critical value (state when the Ho is rejected) 5)calculations 6)Compare calc. to critical r 7)state conclusion 

What is the Coefficient of Determination

=r squared
tells us the proportion of shared variance by the two variables The amount of variance explained in performance on one variable by knowing the performance on the second variable 

What is a synonym for regression

Prediction


What must be done first between X and Y variables

the Correlation


What are soem examples of Regression

GRE tests predicting individual's success in grad school
measuring skinfolds to predict body fat % determining activity level and measuring BMI 

What is the prediction/regression formula

Y'=bX + a
**same formula for a straight line** where "b" is the slope and "a" is the yintercept 

What is the difference between Y and Y'

Y is the actual observed score
Y' is the predicted score 

What does the regression line describe

formula for the line describes the line of best fit


How many points are needed to define a line

2


What can be calculated by knowing 2 points in the line

The slope (a) and the yintercept (b)


True or False
Estimates are made for the line of best fit using all of the data because we do not know the 2 points to begin with 
True


what does the slope steepness depend on

how the changes in the X variable (predictor) are related to changes in the Y variable (criterion)


What does the regression line describe

formula for the line describes the line of best fit


How many points are needed to define a line

2


What can be calculated by knowing 2 points in the line

The slope (a) and the yintercept (b)


True or False
Estimates are made for the line of best fit using all of the data because we do not know the 2 points to begin with 
True


What does the regression line describe

formula for the line describes the line of best fit


what does the slope steepness depend on

how the changes in the X variable (predictor) are related to changes in the Y variable (criterion)


How many points are needed to define a line

2


What can be calculated by knowing 2 points in the line

The slope (a) and the yintercept (b)


True or False
Estimates are made for the line of best fit using all of the data because we do not know the 2 points to begin with 
True


what does the slope steepness depend on

how the changes in the X variable (predictor) are related to changes in the Y variable (criterion)


How is the line of best fit drawn

1)Place dot where the mean X score meats the mean Y score
2)locate the yintercept value 3)connect the two points 

True or false
Using the scatterplot and prediction line is a precise way of predicting 
False


True or false
Once prediction formula is developed, it is use on individuals who were involved in its formulation 
False
Individuals who were NOT involved 

What are the X values for each individual entered into

The prediction formula to determine a predicted Y score


What is the minumum number of sujects needed per variable

40


Why is there a minumum requirement of suject with regression lines

half of the subjects are used to develope the regression prediction formula and the other half are used to test the formula
need to determine if it is a good prediction formula 

When are predicitons considered to have NO errors

when r = 1.00 or 1.00


What is error of estimates

residual
the actual Y value minus the predicted Y value 

Definition
Variance error of estimate 
The variance of a sample of residuals


Definition
Standard Error of Estimate (SEE) 
The square root of variance error of the estimate
alsothe standard deviation of the residuals 

True or False
Want the standard error of estimate to small 
True
The smaller it is, the more precise the prediction 

What will result in a smaller SEE (standard error of estimate)

small stnd dev for the Y scores and high magnitude for r


Formula
SEE 
= sy x (sq rt. of 1r squared)
sy stnd dev of Y variable 

What are the assumptions for Bivariate regression

Same as correlation
1)Randomness 2)normal distribution 3)linear relationship btwn IV and DV 

What is multiple Regression

has more than on IV


What is the general purpose for multiple regression

asses relationship between one variable (DV, symbolized as y) and several others (IVs, predictor, or x)


What can the IV be for multiple regression

Correlated or not
Continuous or categorical Naturally occurring or manipulated 

What is the formula with multivariate regression

Yp=a + b1X1 + b2X2 +.....


Definition
Beta Weights 
The standardized regression coefficients (b in the equation)


What are Beta Weights used to determine

the importance of the IV in relation to the DV


True or false
Beta Weights are really the raw regression coefficient (raw score) converted to a zscore 
True
