Study your flashcards anywhere!
Download the official Cram app for free >
 Shuffle
Toggle OnToggle Off
 Alphabetize
Toggle OnToggle Off
 Front First
Toggle OnToggle Off
 Both Sides
Toggle OnToggle Off
 Read
Toggle OnToggle Off
How to study your flashcards.
Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key
Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key
H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key
A key: Read text to speech.a key
33 Cards in this Set
 Front
 Back
Sampling with replacement

A number is not removed from the population because it has occured


Stratified Sampling

Classes or strata are formed inside a population. A simplee random sample is than drawn from each class or strata


Systematic sampling

Every nth element of a population is chosen (like every 12th person)


Cluster sampling

Populations are divided into areas. Areas are than selected at random and every element of the area is tested


Convenience Sampling

Elements chosen by how handy they happen to be


Census

Count everyone or everything


Survey

Ask a sample to gather data


Problems with surveys

the sample may be biased, selfselected, or may contain a hidden bias, which is unknown to the surveyor and even the population. you may miss variables when asking your question


Statistics

Involves the organization of data so as to make sense of the data and possibly predict the future using the data.


Qualitative Data

Data can be separated into different categories that are distinguished by some nonnumerical characteristics


Quantative Data

The data consist of numbers representing counts or measurments


Measurement

Somewhat arbitrary assignment of a number to an event or item


Discrete Measurements

The data can only have finite number values


Continuous measurement

Infinitely many possiblities for values


Population

The whole set or group


Sample

A subset of the population


Experiment

Set up a control group, an experimental, treat the experimental group and measure what happens.


Simulation

run a numerical model of the situation, probably on a computer, but not necessarily. (monopoly)


Simple random Sample

Everything or everybody in the population has an equal chance of being chosen


Observational Study

Observe and measure individuals in a way that doesn't change the response or the variable being measured


Placebo

No treatment or a dummy treatment


Randomized

Twotreatment experiment: Experiment and control group


Lurking variables

Unknown or hidden effects


Bias

Slanting of the data one way or another


Hidden bias

Unknown slanting of hte data one way or another


Replication

If the experiment is repeated, do you obtain the sam result? or are the results due to chance alone


Generalizing results

The results for a particular population used for the experiment may not apply to other populations.


Histograms

Varies from a normal bar graph by the bars always touching and hte width of hte bar represents a quantative value. Need a frequency table


Lower class limit

The smallest number that belongs in a different class


Upper class limit

The largest numbers that belong in the different classes


Class bounddaries

half way between two limits


Class marks

The midpoint of each class


Class width

the difference betwen 2 consecutive lower class limits or boundaries
