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### 33 Cards in this Set

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 Sampling with replacement A number is not removed from the population because it has occured Stratified Sampling Classes or strata are formed inside a population. A simplee random sample is than drawn from each class or strata Systematic sampling Every nth element of a population is chosen (like every 12th person) Cluster sampling Populations are divided into areas. Areas are than selected at random and every element of the area is tested Convenience Sampling Elements chosen by how handy they happen to be Census Count everyone or everything Survey Ask a sample to gather data Problems with surveys the sample may be biased, self-selected, or may contain a hidden bias, which is unknown to the surveyor and even the population. you may miss variables when asking your question Statistics Involves the organization of data so as to make sense of the data and possibly predict the future using the data. Qualitative Data Data can be separated into different categories that are distinguished by some nonnumerical characteristics Quantative Data The data consist of numbers representing counts or measurments Measurement Somewhat arbitrary assignment of a number to an event or item Discrete Measurements The data can only have finite number values Continuous measurement Infinitely many possiblities for values Population The whole set or group Sample A subset of the population Experiment Set up a control group, an experimental, treat the experimental group and measure what happens. Simulation run a numerical model of the situation, probably on a computer, but not necessarily. (monopoly) Simple random Sample Everything or everybody in the population has an equal chance of being chosen Observational Study Observe and measure individuals in a way that doesn't change the response or the variable being measured Placebo No treatment or a dummy treatment Randomized Two-treatment experiment: Experiment and control group Lurking variables Unknown or hidden effects Bias Slanting of the data one way or another Hidden bias Unknown slanting of hte data one way or another Replication If the experiment is repeated, do you obtain the sam result? or are the results due to chance alone Generalizing results The results for a particular population used for the experiment may not apply to other populations. Histograms Varies from a normal bar graph by the bars always touching and hte width of hte bar represents a quantative value. Need a frequency table Lower class limit The smallest number that belongs in a different class Upper class limit The largest numbers that belong in the different classes Class bounddaries half way between two limits Class marks The midpoint of each class Class width the difference betwen 2 consecutive lower class limits or boundaries