Study your flashcards anywhere!
Download the official Cram app for free >
 Shuffle
Toggle OnToggle Off
 Alphabetize
Toggle OnToggle Off
 Front First
Toggle OnToggle Off
 Both Sides
Toggle OnToggle Off
 Read
Toggle OnToggle Off
How to study your flashcards.
Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key
Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key
H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key
A key: Read text to speech.a key
42 Cards in this Set
 Front
 Back
A set of procedures used to analyze data

Statistics


The actual result at the end of the procedure

Statistic


Summarize, organize, and simplify data
Assign numbers to answers to better organize data 
Descriptive Statistics


A small percentage you are interested in

Inferential Statistics


Measurements or observations

Data


Collection of information (all data)

Data Set


The group of all people of interest

Population


A representative group (that represents a larger group)

Sample


Characteristics or conditions that change and have different values for different people

Variable


The variable that receives treatment or changed in some way

Independent Variable


The variable that is measured

Dependent Variable


Anticipated outcome of the study
What you think will happen ****Theory**** 
Hypothesis


Score

X


a.)Number of scores (population)
b.) Number of scores (sample) 
a.) N
b.) n 

Summation

Σ


Using 2, 4, 4, 5, solve.
ΣX = ? 
ΣX = 15


Using 2, 4, 4, 5, solve.
(ΣX) + 2 = ? 
Σ (15) + 2 = 17


Using 2, 4, 4, 5, solve.
Σ (X + 2) = ? 
Σ (2+2)+(4+2)+(4+2)+(5+2)
(4) + (6) + (6) + (7) = 23 

Using 2, 4, 4, 5, solve.
(ΣX)^2 = ? 
Σ (15)^2 = 225


Using 2, 4, 4, 5, solve.
Σ (X^2) = ? 
Σ (2^2)+(4^2)+(4^2)+(5^2)
(4) + (8) + (8) + (25) = 61 

The most frequently occuring X (score)

Mode


Divides exactly in half

Median


Average

Mean


Solve for 2, 4, 4, 5.
a.) Mode b.) Median c.) Mean 
a.) 4
b.) 4 c.) 3.5 

Solve for 2, 4, 4, 5, 5, 6.
a.) Mode b.) Median c.) Mean 
a.) 4, 5
b.) 4.5 c.) 4.33 

Steps to solve.

1.) Rank Order
2.) ΣX 3.) N 

How many times each number appears in the data set

Frequency (f)


what proportion represented by each score

Proportion (p)


What is the other information also used in the histogram?

Percentage (%)


Distance between the highest score and the lowest score
Highest  Lowest 
Range


Locate P50, think of them as two datasets

Interquartile Range (IQR)
SemiInterquartile Range (SemiIQR) 

Named categories in no particular order (ex. Eyes color : green, blue, brown)

Nominal (MODE)


Ranked Data (ex. 1st, 2nd, 3rd)

Ordinal (MODE, MEDIAN)


Equal Between NO TRUE ZERO
(ex. IQ, temperature) Add & Subtract 
Interval(MODE, MEDIAN, MEAN)


Equal Intervals; TRUE ZERO
(ex. $0 in bank account or pocket) Add, Subtract, Multiply, & Divide 
Ratio(MODE, MEDIAN, MEAN)


Used in most research, assign or code numbers to your data, and then use statistical analysis

Quanitive Data


More Narrative Data

Qualitive Data


Histogram info

X f p %


*
* * * * 1 2 3 4 5 
Symmetrical


*
* * * * 1 2 3 4 5 
Postively skewed


* *
* * * 1 2 3 4 5 
Negatively skewed


Info for graph

F
r e q S c o r e s 