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42 Cards in this Set

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A set of procedures used to analyze data
Statistics
The actual result at the end of the procedure
Statistic
Summarize, organize, and simplify data

Assign numbers to answers to better organize data
Descriptive Statistics
A small percentage you are interested in
Inferential Statistics
Measurements or observations
Data
Collection of information (all data)
Data Set
The group of all people of interest
Population
A representative group (that represents a larger group)
Sample
Characteristics or conditions that change and have different values for different people
Variable
The variable that receives treatment or changed in some way
Independent Variable
The variable that is measured
Dependent Variable
Anticipated outcome of the study

What you think will happen

****Theory****
Hypothesis
Score
X
a.)Number of scores (population)

b.) Number of scores (sample)
a.) N

b.) n
Summation
Σ
Using 2, 4, 4, 5, solve.

ΣX = ?
ΣX = 15
Using 2, 4, 4, 5, solve.

(ΣX) + 2 = ?
Σ (15) + 2 = 17
Using 2, 4, 4, 5, solve.

Σ (X + 2) = ?
Σ (2+2)+(4+2)+(4+2)+(5+2)
(4) + (6) + (6) + (7)
= 23
Using 2, 4, 4, 5, solve.

(ΣX)^2 = ?
Σ (15)^2 = 225
Using 2, 4, 4, 5, solve.

Σ (X^2) = ?
Σ (2^2)+(4^2)+(4^2)+(5^2)
(4) + (8) + (8) + (25)
= 61
The most frequently occuring X (score)
Mode
Divides exactly in half
Median
Average
Mean
Solve for 2, 4, 4, 5.

a.) Mode
b.) Median
c.) Mean
a.) 4
b.) 4
c.) 3.5
Solve for 2, 4, 4, 5, 5, 6.

a.) Mode
b.) Median
c.) Mean
a.) 4, 5
b.) 4.5
c.) 4.33
Steps to solve.
1.) Rank Order
2.) ΣX
3.) N
How many times each number appears in the data set
Frequency (f)
what proportion represented by each score
Proportion (p)
What is the other information also used in the histogram?
Percentage (%)
Distance between the highest score and the lowest score

Highest - Lowest
Range
Locate P50, think of them as two datasets
Interquartile Range (IQR)

Semi-Interquartile Range (SemiIQR)
Named categories in no particular order (ex. Eyes color : green, blue, brown)
Nominal (MODE)
Ranked Data (ex. 1st, 2nd, 3rd)
Ordinal (MODE, MEDIAN)
Equal Between NO TRUE ZERO

(ex. IQ, temperature)

Add & Subtract
Interval(MODE, MEDIAN, MEAN)
Equal Intervals; TRUE ZERO

(ex. $0 in bank account or pocket)

Add, Subtract, Multiply, & Divide
Ratio(MODE, MEDIAN, MEAN)
Used in most research, assign or code numbers to your data, and then use statistical analysis
Quanitive Data
More Narrative Data
Qualitive Data
Histogram info
X f p %
*
* *
* *
1 2 3 4 5
Symmetrical
*
*
* *
*
1 2 3 4 5
Postively skewed
* *
*
* *
1 2 3 4 5
Negatively skewed
Info for graph
F
r
e
q

S c o r e s