• Shuffle
Toggle On
Toggle Off
• Alphabetize
Toggle On
Toggle Off
• Front First
Toggle On
Toggle Off
• Both Sides
Toggle On
Toggle Off
Toggle On
Toggle Off
Front

### How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

Play button

Play button

Progress

1/31

Click to flip

### 31 Cards in this Set

• Front
• Back
 The science of collecting, organizing, and interpreting data. Statistics (singular) Numbers that describe or summarize something about a sample. Statistics The complete set of people or things being studied. Population A summary of the entire population based on an estimate made from data collected. Population parameter A small part of the population data is collected from. It is representative of the population because it gives good information or discoveries about it. Sample The actual measurements or observations collected from the sample. Raw data Characteristics of the sample found by consolidating or summarizing the raw data. Sample statistics This is used in a statistical study to describe the range of values likely to contain the population parameter. Margin of error How do you find the range of values for the margin of error? By adding or subtracting the margin of error from the sample statistic obtained in the study (+ or -). What are the five basic steps in a statistical study? 1. State the goal of your study precisely (population & what) 2. Choose appropriate sample of the population 3. Collect raw data & summarize by finding sample statistics of interest 4. Use sample statistics to make inferences about the population 5. Draw conclusions Show the process of a statistical study. START > 1. Identify goals: POPULATION > 2. Draw from population: SAMPLE > 3. Collect raw data and summarize :SAMPLE STATISTICS > 4. Make inferences about population: POPULATION PARAMETERS > 5. Draw conclusions: POPULATION The branch the deals with describing raw data in the form of graphics and sample statistics. Descriptive statistics The branch that deals with estimating population parameters from sample data. It uses the study and collected data to support or reject a hypothesis. Inferential statistics What is the purpose of statistics? Its most important purpose is to help us make good decisions about issues that involve uncertainty. A study that uses the entire population. It may be undesirable if it is destructive. Census A sample in which the relevant characteristics of the sample members are the same as that of the population. Representative sample The design or conduct tends to favor certain results. Bias study Every sample of the same size has an equal chance of being selected. A list is needed. A table of random numbers can be used. Simple random sampling Using a simple system to choose a sample such as every kth individual starting at a random place. Systematic sampling Use of a group that is convenient to use. This is a poor sample. Convenience sample The population is divided into groups. Some of the groups are selected at random. The sample is obtained by choosing all the members within each of the selected groups. Cluster sample The population is separated along certain variables. A random sample is drawn from each group. Stratified sample The objects chosen for the sample. Subjects (participants) Study where researchers observe or measure characteristics of the subjects, but do not attempt to influence or modify these characteristics. Things would happen anyway. Observational study Researchers set-up and control all that happens to establish cause and effect and to make observations accordingly. Things happen that would not happen otherwise. It may be unethical. Experiment A study done by using a group of previous studies to look for trends that were not evident in the individual studies. The overall conclusion is then summarized. Meta-analysis Values for or a response to a particular variable. Data A characteristic of the individuals. Variable A variable that deals with numbers such as age or annual income. Quantitative variable A variable that deals with things such as city of residence. Qualitative variable A list of the population. Sampling frame