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31 Cards in this Set

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The science of collecting, organizing, and interpreting data.
Statistics (singular)
Numbers that describe or summarize something about a sample.
Statistics
The complete set of people or things being studied.
Population
A summary of the entire population based on an estimate made from data collected.
Population parameter
A small part of the population data is collected from. It is representative of the population because it gives good information or discoveries about it.
Sample
The actual measurements or observations collected from the sample.
Raw data
Characteristics of the sample found by consolidating or summarizing the raw data.
Sample statistics
This is used in a statistical study to describe the range of values likely to contain the population parameter.
Margin of error
How do you find the range of values for the margin of error?
By adding or subtracting the margin of error from the sample statistic obtained in the study (+ or -).
What are the five basic steps in a statistical study?
1. State the goal of your study precisely (population & what)
2. Choose appropriate sample of the population
3. Collect raw data & summarize by finding sample statistics of interest
4. Use sample statistics to make inferences about the population
5. Draw conclusions
Show the process of a statistical study.
START > 1. Identify goals: POPULATION > 2. Draw from population: SAMPLE > 3. Collect raw data and summarize :SAMPLE STATISTICS > 4. Make inferences about population: POPULATION PARAMETERS > 5. Draw conclusions: POPULATION
The branch the deals with describing raw data in the form of graphics and sample statistics.
Descriptive statistics
The branch that deals with estimating population parameters from sample data. It uses the study and collected data to support or reject a hypothesis.
Inferential statistics
What is the purpose of statistics?
Its most important purpose is to help us make good decisions about issues that involve uncertainty.
A study that uses the entire population. It may be undesirable if it is destructive.
Census
A sample in which the relevant characteristics of the sample members are the same as that of the population.
Representative sample
The design or conduct tends to favor certain results.
Bias study
Every sample of the same size has an equal chance of being selected. A list is needed. A table of random numbers can be used.
Simple random sampling
Using a simple system to choose a sample such as every kth individual starting at a random place.
Systematic sampling
Use of a group that is convenient to use. This is a poor sample.
Convenience sample
The population is divided into groups. Some of the groups are selected at random. The sample is obtained by choosing all the members within each of the selected groups.
Cluster sample
The population is separated along certain variables. A random sample is drawn from each group.
Stratified sample
The objects chosen for the sample.
Subjects (participants)
Study where researchers observe or measure characteristics of the subjects, but do not attempt to influence or modify these characteristics. Things would happen anyway.
Observational study
Researchers set-up and control all that happens to establish cause and effect and to make observations accordingly. Things happen that would not happen otherwise. It may be unethical.
Experiment
A study done by using a group of previous studies to look for trends that were not evident in the individual studies. The overall conclusion is then summarized.
Meta-analysis
Values for or a response to a particular variable.
Data
A characteristic of the individuals.
Variable
A variable that deals with numbers such as age or annual income.
Quantitative variable
A variable that deals with things such as city of residence.
Qualitative variable
A list of the population.
Sampling frame