Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/18

Click to flip

18 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
Political Resourses
1) revenue (money brought in), 2) expenditures (money spent)
-state and local shares of total government revenue over last 50 years has increased while federal has decreased
Proportional Approach to Taxation
takes same proportion of everyone's wealth (same %), still takes more from the rich; most state and local revenue systems lean to proportional
Regressive Approach to Taxation
poor pay more taxes than rich, ignores ability to pay; defense - if the rich are happy, they'll do more for you
"poor pay more"
Progressive Approach to Taxation
the more you own, the more you pay; proportionally the rich pay more than the poor; use income brackets, higher your income, the more you pay
"rich pay more"
Criterion/Prinicples of Taxation
1) ability to pay
2) revenue production
3) administrative ease (how involved system is)
4)political feasibility (how easy system is to put into place)
General Obligation (full faith and credit) bonds
when State and local borrow money with this, they get the authority at the local level to sell bonds to investment houses who sell to private investores, they promise to pay back loan no matter what; credit rating determines interest rate or whether bond is issued at all; less risk
Revenue (producing) bonds
high risk loan because chance won't be repaid, high interest payment; also exempt from federal taxes; State/local loaned money to build something that will yield revenue; success = paid back, failure = don't; often include conditions for use of money
mandate
federal money given to state/local government for specific use; requirement for using federal money, spent as Congress wants; used to impose federal doctrine/agenda on state and local level
Progressive Approach to Taxation
the more you own, the more you pay; proportionally the rich pay more than the poor; use income brackets, higher your income, the more you pay
"rich pay more"
Citizens Conference on State Legislatures
most intensive work on the quality of state legislatures, examined Functionality, Accountability, Information, Independence, Representation
FAIIR
Functionality
time, staff, size, number of committees
Accountability
better if: SMD, open processes, rules allow discussion
Information
handling, time allowed, committee use of records, financial info independent of executive
Independence
autonomy of sessions (authority to call self into session), no undue influence from exec/interest groups, no conflicts of interest
Representation
offices, diverse memebership, money, size sufficient to make a difference
City Council Study
Red, white and blue states; Red-full time, high pay, large staff, prof legis; White-in between, hybrid; Blue-parttime, low pay, small staff
State Legislature Characteristics
-diversity
-occumpation
-size
-time
Factors effecting Governors' Policy Success
-personality
-character
-cognitive
-behavioral style
-skills
-resources
-situation
-strategy