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### 23 Cards in this Set

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 the area of statistics concerned with organizing and summarizing the inevitable variability in collections of actual observations or scores descriptive statistics the area of statistics that provides tools for generalizing beyond collections of actual observations inferential statistics any complete collection of observations or potential observations population any smaller collection of actual observations from a population sample a procedure designed to ensure that each potential observation in the population has equal chance of being selected in a survey random sampling a procedure designed to ensure that each person has an equal chance of being assigned to any group in an experiment random assignment a collection of observations or scores in a survey or an experiment data a set of observations where any single observation is a word, letter, or numerical code that represents a class or category qualitative data a set of observations where any single observation is a number that indicates relative standing ranked data specifies the extent to which a number actually represents some attribute and has implications for the appropriateness of various arithmetic operations and statistical procedures level of measurement words, letters, or numerical codes of qualitative data that reflect differences in kind based on classification nominal measurement relative standing of ranked data reflects differences in degree based on order ordinal measurement amounts or counts of quantitative data reflect differences in degrees based on equal intervals and a true zero interval/ratio measurement a characteristic or property that can take on different values variable a characteristic or property that can take on only one value constant a variable that consists of isolated numbers separated by gaps discrete variable a variable that consists of numbers whose values have no restrictions continuous variable occur whenever numbers are rounded off, as is always the case with values for continuous variables approximate numbers a study in which the investigator decides who receives special treatment experiment the treatment manipulated by the investigator in an experiment independent variable a variable that is believed to have been influenced by the independent variable dependent variable a study that focuses on detecting relationships between variables not manipulated by the investigator observational study an uncontrolled variable that compromises the interpretation of a study confounding variable