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23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
the area of statistics concerned with organizing and summarizing the inevitable variability in collections of actual observations or scores
descriptive statistics
the area of statistics that provides tools for generalizing beyond collections of actual observations
inferential statistics
any complete collection of observations or potential observations
any smaller collection of actual observations from a population
a procedure designed to ensure that each potential observation in the population has equal chance of being selected in a survey
random sampling
a procedure designed to ensure that each person has an equal chance of being assigned to any group in an experiment
random assignment
a collection of observations or scores in a survey or an experiment
a set of observations where any single observation is a word, letter, or numerical code that represents a class or category
qualitative data
a set of observations where any single observation is a number that indicates relative standing
ranked data
specifies the extent to which a number actually represents some attribute and has implications for the appropriateness of various arithmetic operations and statistical procedures
level of measurement
words, letters, or numerical codes of qualitative data that reflect differences in kind based on classification
nominal measurement
relative standing of ranked data reflects differences in degree based on order
ordinal measurement
amounts or counts of quantitative data reflect differences in degrees based on equal intervals and a true zero
interval/ratio measurement
a characteristic or property that can take on different values
a characteristic or property that can take on only one value
a variable that consists of isolated numbers separated by gaps
discrete variable
a variable that consists of numbers whose values have no restrictions
continuous variable
occur whenever numbers are rounded off, as is always the case with values for continuous variables
approximate numbers
a study in which the investigator decides who receives special treatment
the treatment manipulated by the investigator in an experiment
independent variable
a variable that is believed to have been influenced by the independent variable
dependent variable
a study that focuses on detecting relationships between variables not manipulated by the investigator
observational study
an uncontrolled variable that compromises the interpretation of a study
confounding variable