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### 25 Cards in this Set

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 Speed Formula & Velocity Formula Speed = ∆d/∆t Velocity = ∆d/∆t (velocity has speed and direction) Acceleration formula Acceleration = ∆v/∆t Newton's First Law An isolated object will travel in a straight line at a constant velocity Newton's Second Law F=ma (Force = mass x acceleration) Newton's Third Law For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction Momentum Formula Momentum (p) = mv Conservation of Momentum Total momentum of an isolated system does not change Grandfather Paradox Travel back in time, kill your grandfather so you will never be conceived, but if you do this, you won't be born and will be unable to travel through time to kill you grandfather. "Something for Nothing" Paradox You take a photograph of a Rembrandt piece, travel back in time, before he painted it. Tell him to paint it. You got the idea from Rembrandt, he got it from you. "Can History Change?" Paradox If you go back in time can you change something. Will you remember both time lines? Does the entire future change, including people's memories? "Is History Robust or Chaotic?" Butterfly effect. Would a small change in time have a drastic impact or would a small change be absorbed? Special Relativity 1)The speed of light is the same for all observers. 2)No absolute reference frame, no absolute state of rest 3)Space and Time are unified Lorentz Contraction Formula l at speed v = l x √[1-(v²/c²)] Lorentz Factor Exact (for v near light speed) ϒ = 1/ √[1-(v²/c²)] Approximate (small v) ϒ = 1 + ½(v/c)² Time Dilation Formula t in motion = t in rest/ √[1-(v²/c²)] Inertial dampers Counteract g-forces. Subspace Faster than light transit. Force of Gravity (Newton) Fg = GMm/r² Escape velocity Formula √2GM/r General Relativity -Force of gravity can be matched with acceleration. -Light takes a path that takes the least amount of time. -Gravity is the curvature of spacetime -We think of gravity as a force when we mistakenly think of spacetime as flat. Tycho Brahe Observed a supernova. Proposed that it was far away since it did not change position in the sky with different reference frames. Johannes Kepler Orbits are ellipses. Galileo All objects fall at the same rate in a vacuum. 1 Newton kilogram meter / second² 1 Joule kilogram meter² / second²