Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

25 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Speed Formula &

Velocity Formula
Speed = ∆d/∆t

Velocity = ∆d/∆t
(velocity has speed and direction)
Acceleration formula
Acceleration = ∆v/∆t
Newton's First Law
An isolated object will travel in a straight line at a constant velocity
Newton's Second Law

(Force = mass x acceleration)
Newton's Third Law
For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
Momentum Formula
Momentum (p) = mv
Conservation of Momentum
Total momentum of an isolated system does not change
Grandfather Paradox
Travel back in time, kill your grandfather so you will never be conceived, but if you do this, you won't be born and will be unable to travel through time to kill you grandfather.
"Something for Nothing" Paradox
You take a photograph of a Rembrandt piece, travel back in time, before he painted it. Tell him to paint it. You got the idea from Rembrandt, he got it from you.
"Can History Change?" Paradox
If you go back in time can you change something. Will you remember both time lines? Does the entire future change, including people's memories?
"Is History Robust or Chaotic?"
Butterfly effect. Would a small change in time have a drastic impact or would a small change be absorbed?
Special Relativity
1)The speed of light is the same for all observers.
2)No absolute reference frame, no absolute state of rest
3)Space and Time are unified
Lorentz Contraction Formula
l at speed v =
l x √[1-(v²/c²)]
Lorentz Factor
Exact (for v near light speed)
ϒ = 1/ √[1-(v²/c²)]
Approximate (small v)
ϒ = 1 + ½(v/c)²
Time Dilation Formula
t in motion =
t in rest/ √[1-(v²/c²)]
Inertial dampers
Counteract g-forces.
Faster than light transit.
Force of Gravity (Newton)
Fg = GMm/r²
Escape velocity Formula
General Relativity
-Force of gravity can be matched with acceleration.
-Light takes a path that takes the least amount of time.
-Gravity is the curvature of spacetime
-We think of gravity as a force when we mistakenly think of spacetime as flat.
Tycho Brahe
Observed a supernova. Proposed that it was far away since it did not change position in the sky with different reference frames.
Johannes Kepler
Orbits are ellipses.
All objects fall at the same rate in a vacuum.
1 Newton
kilogram meter / second²
1 Joule
kilogram meter² / second²