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85 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
union of sperm with egg forms zygote
fertilization
occurs in ampulla of fallopian tube
fertilization
demen deposited as liquid but clot forms within 1 minute to prevent semen leakage & to protect sperm from vaginal acidity
fertilization
vaginal acidigy is neutralized so sperm can survive & clot liquifies
fertilization
of several million sperm ejaculated into vagina, fewer than 1% survive
fertilization
cervix contains maze of folds & outpocketings that can easily trap semen
fertilization
cervical mucus becomes thinner for sperm to pass through cervix shortly before ovulation
fertilization
approximately one million sperm survive journey through cervix
fertilization
uterine cavity filled with watery fluid through which sperm can easily pass
fertilization
only a few 1000 sperm enter fallopian tubes & move through assisted cilliary action in fallopian tubes
fertilization
only 50-100 sperm actually reach secondary oocyte
fertilization
sperm appear to be drawn toward an oocyte by some type of chemical communication
fertilization
capacitation
fertilization
removes some of protective coating from head of sperm that blocks enzymes stored in acromosome
fertilization
small openings form in acrosome & allow enzymes to escape & digest path for sperm into secondary oocyte when sperm approaches secondary oocyte
fertilization
blocks entry of additional sperm to prevent polyspermy
fertilization
secondary oocyte completes second meiotic division to produce ovum & second polar body
fertilization
fusion of sperm with ovum, combination of chromosomes produces zygote to restore diploid condition
fertilization
secondary oocyte will degenerate within 24 hours of ovulation unless it is fertilized
fertilization
sperm can survive in reproductive tract for up to 7 days
fertilization
"window of opportunity" makes fertilization possible during one week window around time of ovulation
fertilization
two oocytes are released & each is penetrated by seperate sperm
fertilization
dizygotic (Fraternal) twins
fertilization
about 30 hours after fertilization
cleavage
zygote divides by mitosis to form two identical daughter cells
cleavage
mitotic divisions occur every 16-20 hours to produce blastomeres that form solid morula
cleavage
occur quite rapidly & blastomeres get progressively smaller but morula remains same as original zygote
cleavage
cells of morula become tightly associated through compaction & blastomeres of unequal size start to form a hollow blastocyst
cleavage
outer layer of smaller cells will form series of layers around developing embryo
cleavage
trophoblast
cleavage
form if a single zygote splits completely curing cleavage
cleavage
monozygotic (identical) twins
cleavage
begins when blastocyst contacts endometrium
implantation
spontaneous abortions, or miscarriages, may occur at this time
implantation
cells of trophoblast divide & diferentiate to grow into endometrium to anchor it in place
implantation
inner cell mass begins to seperate from trophoblast & differentiate into primary germ layers of embryo
implantation
ectoderm (outer skin) form skin, hair, nails, neural tissue & linings of mouth & throat
implantation
mesoderm (middle skin) form bone cartilage, muscle & parts of heart, kidneys & gonads
implantation
endoderm (inner skin) form most of gut, parts of liver & pancreas, lining of digestive tract, respiratory tract & reproductive ducts
implantation
four extraembryonic membranes form primary germ layers of the embryo
implantation
yolk sac develops from endoderm & mesoderm to produce blood until liver is established
implantation
amnion develops from ectoderm & mesoderm to form covering around embryo
implantation
amniotic sac fills w/ amniotic fluid to sushion & protect developingn embryo & maintain constant temperature & pressure
implantation
allantois develops from endoderm near base of youlk sac to contribute to development of bladder
implantation
blood vessels become umbilical vein & umbilical arteries
implantation
chorion develops from mesoderm & forms finger-like chorionic villi that penestrate endometrium to establish netork of blood vessels
implantation
birth
parturition
stage 1 involves cervical effacement & dilation & lasts from 4 to 24 hours
parturition
cervix is relatively inflexible & must retract upwards to expose head of fetus
parturition
cervical canal is blocked by muscus plug during gestation, and removal of plug creates bloody discharge in vagina
parturition
amniotic sac ruptures
parturition
contractions occur at short intervals & intensify as cervix completely dilates
parturition
stages 2 involves expulsion of fetus and lasts 15 minutes-2 hours
parturition
contractions reach maximum intensity at one to two minute intervals
parturition
head of fetus rotates from side facing to downward facing & extends forward to pass beneath pubic bone
parturition
once head clears birth canal shoulders & rest of body slide past pubic bone
parturition
"crowning"
parturition
episiotomy
parturition
if vaginal canal is too small to permit passage of fetus or if danger of perineal tearing, incision made between vagina & anus
parturition
breech birth, a tangled umbilical cord, too large of a baby, or prematurely detached placenta which causes a hemorrhage cause need for a cesarean section
parturition
stage 3 involves expulsion of placenta within 15-30 minutes after birth
parturition
"afterbirth"
parturition
uterine contractions tear placenta from endometrium to expel "afterbirth"
parturition
forceful contractions consrict uterine blood vessels to reduce hemorrhage
parturition
pregnancy
gestation
9 months, 40 weeks, or 266 days
gestation
embryonic stage, first 8-10 weeks
gestation
characterized by development of major organ systems
gestation
fetal stage, last 30-32 weeks
gestation
characterized by organ growth & maturation of fetus
gestation
corpus luteum secretes estrogens & progesterone to maintain endometrium & prepare mammary glands for lactation
gestation
Human chorionic gonadotropin secreted by chorionic villi to maintain corpus luteum to prevent menstruation that would eliminate developing embryo
gestation
hCG levels in urine serve as basis for home pregnancy tests
gestation
hCG levels may cause nausea & vomiting associated with morning sickness
gestation
eventually placenta takes over secretion of hormones needed to maintain pregnancy
gestation
steroid hormones released from fetal adrenal cortex
gestation
falling progesterone levels increase sensitivity of uterine smooth muscles to oxytocin
gestation
oxytocin stimulates uterine smooth muscle to contract (released by posterior pituitary gland)
gestation
rising level of oxytocin stimulate production of prostaglandins that will further contribute to uterine smooth muscle contractions
gestation
relaxin softens pubic symphasis & dilates cervix (produced by placenta)
gestation
fetus drops lower in pelvic cavity in process of "lightening" that reduces pressure on mother's abdomen & diaphragm making it easier for it to breathe
gestation
during last week fetus will rotate in uterus to present itself for delivery
gestation
head usually moves farther toward cervix in order to exit first
gestation
during final weeks may experience false labor characterized by Braxton-Hicks contractions that are irregular & not very strong
gestation
true labor characterized by contractions at regular intervals
gestation