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66 Cards in this Set

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What is to the west, south and east of Greece
west-> Ionian sea, sounth-> Mediterranean Sea, east-> Aegen Sea
peninsula
body of land with water on three sides
many greeks made a living from ___
the sea, became fishers sailors and traders
climate was mild so some ppl grew
wheat barley olives and grapes
greeks raised __ (animals)
sheeps and goats
Minoans earned living by
building ships and trading
Arthur Evans
english archaeologist uncovered the ruins of the palace at Knossos
what were mioan ships made out of
oak ad cedar trees (sailed as far as Egypt and Syria
what did mioans trade
traded pottery and stone vases for ivory and metals
when did minoan civilization collapse, why?
1450 B.C. either b/c of an earthquake or by the Mycenaeans
What did mycenaens leaders become
first greek kings
Heinrich Schliemann
German who dicovered a walled palace in Mycenae and named the ppl of this civilization Mycenaeans
what was the centerpiece of each mycenaean kingdom
fortified palace on a hill where the ruler live surrounded by stone walla
what did government officals do in mycenaea, and what were taxes
kept track of each person wealth, taxes were wheat, livestock, and honey
who did the mycenaeans copie?
they copied the minoans
what are the mycenaeans most proud of?
their deeds in battle, trojan war
dark age
1100 B.C. and 750 B.C ppl stopped trading, and teaching their written language
1100 B.C.
mycenaean civilization collapsed
positive change in dark ages
population shift, greek culture expanded
Dorians
pp that invaded greece and brought iron weapons (stronger and cheaper than bronze)
greeks picked up from an alphabet from the ___
phoenicians
greek alphabet
24 letters that stood for sounds, simpler and easier
colonies
settlement in a new territory that keeps close ties to its homeland
where did greek colonies settle?
italy france spain north africa and western asia
what did greeks begin to make in the 600s B.C.
mint coins, money for goods instead of goods for more goods
polis
greek city-state, tiny independant country
acropolis
fortified area, main gathering place, usually a hill, religious center
agora
below acropolis, open area
2 funtions:
a. market
b. place where ppl could meet and debate issues
greek city-states were run by their ___
citizens
who qualified for citizenship
free native-born men who owned land
rights of greek citizens
could gather in the agora to choose their officials and pass laws, right to vote, hold office, own property, and defend themselves in court
hoplites
armied of ordinary citizens, fought on foot and each had a round shield, a short sword,and a 9-ft spear
tyrant
is someone who takes power by force and rules with total authority
where did the tyrants get their support??
from hoplites, famrers, common ppl
how did tyrants make themselves popular
by building new marketplaces and tempes and walls
oligarchy
few ppl hold power
democracy
all citizens share in running the government
who was sparta founded by?
founded by Dorians
helots
spartan captive workers, comes from greek word capture
when did spartan boys go and live in barracks
at age 7
when did spartans enter the regualr army
at age 20
when did spartan boys return home?
at age 30
how long did spartans stay in the army
until they were 60 years old
girls in sparta were trained in
sports, running wrestling and javelin throwing
could spartan woman own property and go anywhere they wanted?
yes
two ____ headed a council of elders
kings
who was the spartan council made up of and what did they do
28 citizens over 60, presented laws to an assembly
assembly
all spartan men over 30, voted on councils laws and chose five ppl tp be ephors each year
ephor
enforced laws and managed taz collection
athenian boys learned...
how to read, write, do arithmatic, how to sinf, play the lyre,and sports
when did athenian boys finish school
at 18, they became citizens
athenians girls learned
spinning weaving and other household duties from their mothers
Solon
594 B.C. noble that canceled all the farmers' debts and freed slaved, allowed make citiens to participate in assembly and law courts
Peisistratus
tyrant seized power in 560 B.C. won support of the poor by dividing large estates among landless farmers, loanded money to poor ppl abd gave them jobs
Cleisthenes
508 B.C. reorganized the assembly to play the central role in governing, they could debate matters openly, hear court cases, and appoint army generals, created a council of 500 citizens to help assembly
what did the council do?
proposed laws, dealt with foreign countries, and oversaw the treasury
what is cleisthenes credited with?
making Athens a democracy
Cyrus the Great
united Persians into a powerful kingdom (559 B.C. to 530 B.C.)
Darius
521 B.C. divided empire intp satrapies ruled by a satrap
kings power depended on his...
troops
immortals
10,000 specially trained soldiers, paid to work full time, guarded king, when someone died, immediately replaced
Zoroastrianism
Persian religion founded by Zoroaster, born in 660 B.C.
Battle of Marathon
490 B.C.
Themistocles
athenian general
Leonidas
spartan king and commmander
Plataea
479 B.C. largest greek army ever assemlbed