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55 Cards in this Set

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Franks
-Germanic peoples
- conquered Roman province of Gaul in late 4th/early 5th century
- farmers who lovd war
- Frank=free
- franchise(the right to vote) comes from Franks
Merovingians
- ruled Frankss for almost 300 years
- when Clovis I died, he divided kingdom among children, who weren't great leaders
- family then became infamous for treachery and muderous infighting within family
-for next 2 centuries, they were weakened by treachey and kingdom fell to chaos
Clovis I
-part of Merovingian royal family
- reigned from 481 to 511 CE
- found FRance and named Paris capital
Carolingian Empire
- Charlemagne's empire
-from 770 to 814 CE
Celts
-forced out of Germany by Angles, Saxons & JUtes
-moved into Wales, Cornwall, Scotand, Ireland
-celtic culture disappeared in Britain
Anglo-Saxons
- Angles+Saxons
- farmers & warriors
- skilled metal workers
-suffered from viking raids
-epic: long poem telling of heroic deeds
Irish
- Celts practiced Druidism
-St.Patrick brought Ireland Christianity: healthy respect for learning
Bayeux Tapestry
-tells of Battle of Hastings/William's victory through eyes of Normans
-Harold, English earl vs William of Normandy
-Harold+William's vassal
-KInd Edward dies
-both Harold & William claim throne
- WAR:
-William: cavalry Harold: footsoldiers
-William pretended to retreat; soldiers broke rank to chase after them; William charged through
Feudal System
-William the Conquerer brought this Normandic feudal system to England
-began to take land away from english earls and gave them to Norman knights
-based on 3 F's:
fief,fealty,faith
-source of wealth=land
-gave land to nobles who swore an oath of allegiance in exchange:
- serve in king's army for 40 days/ year
- supply king with soldiers
-serve in king's court(give advice)
- give money
Vassals
one who swears loyalty to a lord/monarch
Battle of Hastings
-marked point when mounted & armoured knights became powerful
-caused England's social & political reorganiztion through Norman feudalism
- center of feudal life:manor
-primarily military arrangement
Wergild
-man money; value of a person in money
-must be payed when property stolen or someone is injured/killed
Serfs
-peasants who worked on the lord's manor
-considered free, but not allowed to move away from manor
-lords/rulers demanded resources from serfs
-considered part of property
Charlemagne
-part of Merovingians
- came to power in western europe 768 CE
-Charles the Great
-interested in rebuilding civilizations and had intelligence/power to do so
-expanded empire
-crowned Emperor of Romans in 800 CE by Pope Leo II
- sent out missi dominicis: agents/lord's messengers who made sure people were treated properly
-created single code of laws for whole empire
-made things better for serfs
-encouraged learning/art--- Renaissance
freeholders
- person who owns his or her land
-serfs+freeholders= 90% of population
Renaissance
-in french meaning 'rebirth'
-began in Italy 14th century
feudal contract
-contract b/w lord
-lord of manor: tenant of noble who has inherited right ot run manor and profit from it
manor
-self-sufficient place
demense
-land set aside for lord of manor
bailiff
-collected rents, supervised serfs & freeholders
3 field system
- 2 fields planted
- 1 field fallowed
fallow
-ploughed and left unseeded
troubadors
singers
obligations of lord/lady of manor
-send knights to king
-marry & have kids
relic
-item associated with saints; said to have great powers
excommunicated
-cancelling a oerson's member in church
-one of the worst things that could happen to someone
7 deadly sins
-pride, anger, envy, greed, lust, gluttony, sloth
Crusades(brief)
-wars in which Christian Europeans fought againts Muslims for control of Holy Land
-holy land= modern day Israel
-if fought in Crusade, you were secured a place in heaven and became a hero
-people got bribed to join
Magna Carta
- magna carta=the great chart
-barons rebelled against King John
-so king was forced to sign so he wouldn't abuse his power
-part of Canada's charter of rights and freedoms; law & government
ward
orphan put into care of someone else
Pilgrimage
-pilgrims take long dangerous journey to holy place
-a way of making up for sins
Flagellants
-a religious group which spreads idea that the plague was a punishment from God and self-flagellation would appease him
Apprentice
one who learns a trade by working for a master
dub
to make a person a knight
heresy
teachings that go against the church
Sumptuary Laws
-restricts the amount of food you consume, depending on your social status. ex. nobles get to eat more than peasants
Salic code
-monetary value on every property/person
Humanists
-people who were more concerned about human goals than spiritual matters
-believed in power of reason, not the bible
-can choose own destiny
Printing technology
-allowed books to be mass produced
-allowed middle class to have books as well
-allowed more maps/music
siege
-act of surrounding a fortified place to capture it
tithe
money given to Church- approx. 10% of income
ecclesiastical
having to do with the church
Monastic life
nunneries, monasteries, convents
prosecute
present evidence to prove someone's guilt
trial by ordeal
-basic concept: god would help innocent people
-put people through an ordeal (ex.swallow poison) to see if he/she survives
trial by battle
-2 nobles/knights would fight until one died
-winner assumed innocent
-women would choose someone to fight for her
Manor courts
-most common court
-settled minor disputes
Royal courts
-serious crimes (ex.treason, murder..)
-punishments more severe
Church courts
-judged bishops deacons, priests, monks nuns, clerks
Chivalry
code of honor every knight swore to uphold
Hundred Years War
-struggle between England & FRance
-lasted from 1338~1453(115 years)
-had long truces
-much time spent pillaging and maneuvering
-dispute about who should be king; French wanted FRench cousin of dead king, English wanted Edward the 3rd who was dead king's nephew
-archers of England killed many, powerful
-ruined and wasted energy
-in the end, England only held Calais
moat
A deep wide ditch, usually filled with water, typically surrounding a fortified medieval town, fortress, or castle as a protection against assault.
porticullis
A grating of iron or wooden bars or slats, suspended in the gateway of a fortified place and lowered to block passage.
keep
-heart/stronghold of a castle
murderhole
-A murder-hole is a hole in the ceiling of a gateway or passageway in a fortification through which the defenders can fire, throw or pour dangerous or noxious substances at attackers