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81 Cards in this Set

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Election of 1920
Warren G. Harding vs. James Cox
Harding stressed calm after years of reform and war-called a "return to normalcy"
Describe what good things harding did when he came into office
-chose many excellent individuals for his cabinet such as Mellon (Secretard of Treasury) and Hoover (Secretard of Commerce)
Ohio Gang
Harding's political friends from Ohio that he gave jobs to-many were involved in serious scandals
example of ohio gang scandals
1. charles forbes-head of the veterans bureau-convicted of stealing millions of dollars from the bureau
teapot dome scandal
scandal revealed after hardings death-secretary of interior albert fall secretly leased gov. held oil reserves at teapot dome, wyoming to oil companies for large bribes-first caninet official to be sent to prison
how did harding die and who became president after?
died of heart attack-many believed it was bc of the scanls involving his friends-coolidge becomes president
what wre the goals of americans concerning foreign affairs after WWI?
many americans wanted to stay out of european affairs. the u.s. was now the worlds leading economic and political power bc european countries weakened during war-
what were the foreign affairs goals of harding and coolidge after WWI?
they wanted to keep the hard-won peace in europe. they didnt want to commit the u.s. to the job of keeping world peace-most americans supported this isolationist policy
how did the u.s. help russia after wwI?
v.i. lenin was making russia the 1st communist nation-soviet union. the u.s. refused to recognize it but congress voted $20 million aid when famine threatened russia in 1921. saved as many as 10 million russians from starvation
why did american trade and investment increase in latin america during WWI?
bc latin america had been cut off from europe during the war-this continued after the war
why did the u.s. intervene in nicaragua in 1926?
a revolution broke out there, where americans owned plantations and railroads. u.s. marines were sent in to oversee new elections
why did the u.s. neogotiate w/ mexico in 1927?
mexico announced plans to take over foreign0ownded oil and mining companies-american investors called on pres. coolidge to send in troops but instead he sent diplomat dwight morrow to mexico. after hard bargaining, morrow was able to work out a compromise w/ the mexican gov.
reducing a nation's amred forces and weapons of war
ex. at the washington conference of 1921, the u.s., britain, and japan agreed to limit the size of their navies
Kellogg-Briand Pact
the u.s. joined 61 other nations in this pact, which outlowed war. however, it did not set up any means of keeping peace. one nation could still use force against another w/o punishment
how did WWI help the economy?
1) american factories expanded to supply european markets and to supply the american war effort.
2) during the war, millions of americans moved from rural areas to cities to take jobs in factories
what happened to the economy after the war?
two million soldiers returned and factories stopped producing war materials. result=short reccsion/depression from 1919-1922 by 1923, the economy was growing rapidly
why was there an auto boom in the 1920's?
by 1924, the price of cars dropped so that ordinary americans could afford them-reason for price drop=henry ford's assembly line, which other companies copied
what other industries did the car industry affect??
4 million americans, directly or indirectly, owed their jobs to cars
1) people in steel mills produced metal for cars
2) others made paint, glass, and tires
3) some drilled oil in the SW or worked in factories that produced gasoline
4) states and towns built more roads and highways
5) gas stations, tourist cabins and restaurants spraing up across the country
who said these words and what did they mean?
1) "the business of america is business"
2) "the man who builds a factory builds a temple"
president coolidge's phiosphies-stressed the importance of business
between what years did output and consumer spending rise and the economy boomed?
what two fields related to automobiles grew during the auto boom?
steel and rubber
what were some new products of the 1920's?
radios, phonographs, vacuum cleaners, refridgerators, and telephones (in rural areas)
installment buying
buying on credit
ex. buyers could take home a new fridge just by paying down a few dollars-each month they paid an installment until they paid the full price plus interest
why was installment buying helpful?
why was it bad?
-helped americans buy things they could not pay for all at once
-increased demand for goods
-consumer debt jumped-by the end of the decade consumers owed more than the amount of the federal budget
what became a major industry of the 1920's beside the auto industry??
-advertising-boosted sales and encouraged people to think that they'd be happy if they bought products that they were shown in advertisements w/ happy people
bull market
-nickname for the soaring stockmarket-millions of americans invested in the stock market during the 1920's-more than ever before
on margin
people bought stocks on margin-similar to installemnt buying-a person could buy a stock for a 10% down payment-the buyer held the stock until the price rose and then sold it at a profit-the system worked as long as stock pirces stayed up-many counted on sotck rising in order to pay off their purchase price
what were some warnings of the end of the bull market?
-prices of many stocks rose faster than the value of the companies themselves
many warned the market wud end but investors ignored the warnings and believed it wud last 4ever
"noble experiment"-a ban on making and selling alcohol anywhere in the u.s. the ban became a law when the u.s. passed the 18th amendment-many americans thought it would improve the american way of life
what were ways that people got around the prohibition law?
-some ppl made their own alcohol
people who smuggled in millions of gallons of liquor from canada and the caribbean
illegal bars that opened in nearly every city and town-made drinking even more popular-welcomed women as well as men, when before prohibition, it was not considered proper for a woman to go into a bar
how did prohibition give a big boost to organized crime?
-every speakeasy needed liquor, and gangsters supplied it--they divided up cities and forced speakeasy ownders to buy from them-sometimes they gunned down rivals in battles over turf-they bribed policemen, public officials, and judges
-bootleggers earned big profits
why was prohibition repealed?
-most americans agreed that prohibition was undermining respect for the law
-prohibition never stopped drinking
Carrie Chapman Catt
head of the national woman suffrage association-set up the league of women voters to educate woman votes
ana ruque de duprey
an educator and writer-led puerto rican women in the crusade for the vote-which finally succeeded in 1929
bull market
-nickname for the soaring stockmarket-millions of americans invested in the stock market during the 1920's-more than ever before
what happened the first time women went to the polls in 1920?
-their votes helped to elect harding
-ppl had feared theyd vote as a group-they did not-some voted for Rep., some for Dem., and some did not vote at all
alice paul
leading suffragist-called for an equal rights amendment-would lead to women being drafted and sent to war-amendment was never passed
how did women's lives change during the war?
while men were at war, they filed for jobs of men who had gone. when troops came home, some had to give up their jobs but some remained in the work force
-poor women had always worked but now they were joined by middle-class women
thomas edison and george eastman
helped todevelop the first moving picture cameras
what did ppl look for new ways to have fun in the 1920s??
-rising wages
-labor-saving appliances
rudolph valentino
the most popular actor of the time-was in movies like The Shiek
The Jazz Singer
first movie with sound-called a talkie
explain movies popularity in the 1920s
-millions of americans went to the movies at least once a week
explain radio's popularity in the 1920's
first radio station in 1920-10 million families w/ radios by 1929
-families gathered around the radio to listen to shows like "Roxy and His Gang" and "Jack Frost's Melody Moments"
how did cars influence americans?
-americans traveled more places and moved pore quickly-helped americans learn more about each other
-city dwellers wanted to escape crowded conditions so they moved to nearby towns in the country, which grew into suburbs
-suburban families could drive to the city, stores, schools, or work
-cars brought towns, shops, and movies closer
a style or activity that is popular for a short time
ex. in 1920's-flagpole sitting, dance marathons, and mah-jongg, a chinese game
young women who rebelled against traditional ways of thinking and acting-wore their hair bobbed, or cut short, wore short dresses, and bright red lipstick-smoked cigarettes in public and drank alcohol in speakeasies-only a few but set styles for others
new kind of music that ocmbined african rhythms and european harmonies-created by black musicians in new orleans and chicago from ragtime and blues
-influenced new dances-shimmy, the charleston
-considered one of the most important cultural achievements of the u.s.
louis armstrong
-one of the brilliant young musicians that helped to create jazz
-played trumpet in his new orleans orphanage
why did some american writers mo e back to europe in the 1920s?
they criticized american society for caring too much about money and fun. some became so unhappy w/ life in the u.s. that they moved to europe
ernest hemingway
-one of the most popular writers of the 1920s
-drove an ambulance in italy during the war-wrote about it in A Farewell to Arms
-simple but powerful style influenced many other writers
sinclair lewis
-wrote "Babbitt" and "Main Street"
-presented small-town americans as dull and narrow-minded-reflected the attitude of many city dwellers towrds rural americans
F. Scott Fitzgerald
-young writer who best captured the mood of the roaring twenties
-in The Great Gatsby and other novels, he told about wealthy ppl who attended endless parties but cud not find happiness
-became a hero to college students and flappers among others
edna st. vincent millay
a poet who was enormously popular and expressed the frantic pace of the 1920s
harlem renaissance
large numbers of musicians, writers, and artists settled in harmlem, NYC-this gathering of black artists and musicians led to the harlem renaissance, a rebirth of African AMerican culture-for the first time whites took notice of the achievements of black artists
F. Scott Fitzgerald
-young writer who best captured the mood of the roaring twenties
-in The Great Gatsby and other novels, he told about wealthy ppl who attended endless parties but cud not find happiness
-became a hero to college students and flappers among others
countee cullen
african american who taught in a harlem h.s. and won prizes for his books of poetry
claudy mckay
came to the u.s. from jamaica-condemned the lynchings and other mob violence that black americans suffered after WWI in his poem "If We Must Die"
Langston Hughes
leading poet of the H.R.
denounced violence against african americans in his poems
zora neale hurston
-wrote novles, essays, and short stories-collected folk tales, songs, and prayers of black southerners and published them in a book called "Mules and Men"
Babe Ruth
greatest baseball player of the 1920s-60 homeruns that he hit set a record that lasted for more than 20 years
Charles A. Lindenburgh
-greatest hero of the decade-first non-stop solo flight from NY to Paris in The Spirit of St. Louis-his aircraft
why did farmers not share in the economic boom of the 1920's?
-were hit the hardest b/c during the war europeans had bought american farm proucts so farmers borrowed money to buy more land and tractors and after the war cud no repay their debts when farm prices dropped and other countries cud make their own farm products
why did laborers not share in the economic boom of the 1920s?
labor unions were not successful in achieving better conditions or wages during the 1920s. a wave of strikes turned the public against labor unions
people opposed to organized government that added a sense of danger during the rise of communism
why was there an outcry against foreigners
many anarchists were foreign born
what happened on wall street during the rise of communism
there was a bombing
The Red Scare
the period during which their was a sense of fear in the u.s. due to the rise of communism (bolsheviks)in russia. during this time thousands of radicals were arrested and jailed
Sacco and Vanzetti trial
-sacco and vanzetti were italian immigrants that were anarchists arrested for robbery nd murder in 1920. many felt that their was prejudice in their trial and that the edivence was limited. they were executed amid the furor.
what were some worries that causes anti-foreigner feelings?
-american workers feared that a flood of newcomers would force wages down
-middle class worried that communists and anarchists would invade the u.s.
quota system
passed in the Emergency Quota Act-allowed only a certain number of ppl fro each country into the u.s.
-favored immigrants from northern and western europe (old immigrants), especially britain
-act discriminated against immigrants from S n E Europe and Asia
Jones Act
made puerto ricans citizens
what immigrants were not part of the quote system?
latin americans and canadians-also many immigrants from mexico and puerto rico
many young mexican immigrants who settled in the u.s. and sent money home to the family. later, their families might join them in the u.s.
scopes trial
john scopes was arrested for teaching darwins theory of evolution to his biology students. this was a clash between the new and old ways of life. tennesse had passed a law against teaching evolution bc of a belief that it contradicted the wible. william jennings bryan prosecuted the case and clarence darrow defended scopes. scopes was convicted and fined.
decribe the new ku klux klan
fear of change and foreigners gave life to an old organization. the ku klux klan grew very strong in the early 1920s until scandals and murder conviction affected their membership
how did african americans respond to racism?
they moved north where they also found racism
marcus gravey
formed the universal negro improvement association which promoted unity and pride. he urged african americans to seek their roots in africa in his "Back to Africa" movement
election of 1928
herbert hoover vs. alred e. smith-smith was the first catholic to run for pres. hoover the republican, handily defeated smith, the democrat. anti-catholic sentiment was very strong.