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63 Cards in this Set

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Civil Service
the service that includes all federal jobs except for elected positions and those in the armed forces.
How did President James Garfield plan to deal with patronage and what happened to him?
He tried to limit the spoils system and called for reform of the civil service. He thought that people should get government jobs based on merit, or ability, rather than as rewards for political support. Garfield was shot by an angry officeseeker before he could put his new reform into practice.
What did President Rutherford B. Hayes do to try to limit the spoils system?
He only appointed qualified officials.
Giving jobs to loyal supporters, which increased politicians' control of goverment. It often led to corruption, when officeholders helped themselves to public money or did not have skills for the jobs. It existed on a national, state, and local level.
money, skills, control
What was the Civil Service Commision?
Responsible for fiing jobs in the federal government and setting up exams to select candidates. those who scored the highest got the positions. At first it controlled only a small percentage of federal jobs but pressure from reformers caused more jobs to be added to the commision'st responsibility.
Interstate Commerce Act
The government responded to public outcry against railroads and monopolies. The law forbade unfair practices such as pools and rebates. It also set up the Interstate commerce commision to oversee the railroad industry.
Sherman Antitrust Act
Prohibited trusts or other monopolies from limiting competition. at first this law proved to be difficult and was mail used against unions instead of big businesses.
Willaim "Boss" Tweed
one of the most powerful and corrupt politicians of this time. his political machine, tammany hall, cheated NY out of more than $100 million. thomas nast exposed tweed's corruption w/ his political cartoons.
Samuel Jones
helped to reform the corrption in Toledo, ohio.
Upton Sinclair
Muckraker who wrote "The Jungle" about unsafe practices of meat industry (ex. poisoned rats and put all in meat, ppl fell into cauldrons
Pure Food and Drug Act and Meat Inspection Act
Both were responses to the outcry over "The Jungle." Regulated food industry. Pure Food and Drug- had to list ingredients
What years did the progressive era last and why did it end?
1. progressives had achieved many of their goals
2. outbreak of war captured america's attention
Robert La Follette
governor of wisconsion- introduced program in wisconsin that lowered railroad rates, which increased railraod traffic and helped both railroad owners and customers. called "wisconsin idea" with other states followed too.
voters choose their party's candidates from among several ppl rather than party leaders
voters can suggest a law to state legislature through petitions
voters can directly pass a law and bypass their legislatures.
allows voters to remove an elected official before the end of his or her term.
believed that the problems of society could be solved and that the public good, or public interest, should guide government actions. believed ppl would make the right decisions if given a chance
-middle class
-adopted many reforms of populists
solve problems
1 reform that populists and progressives shared
income tax
progressive reform dealing w/ tariffs
lowered tariff rates to benefit customers
16th amendment
progressives supported a graduated income tax where the wealthy would pay higher rates than the poor
-amendment allowed congress to enact the graduated income tax.
17th amendment
progressives favored popular election of senators b/c they felt it would make the senate less corrupt
-allowed for the direct election of senators by the people
trustbuster (and ex.)
a person who wanted to destroy all trusts ex. president roosevelt
conservation and pres. who supported it
the protection of natural resoures
-pres. roosevelt thought natural resources could serve both public interest and private companies and some wilderness should be kept.
Backround on teddy roosevelt
-came from wealthy family
-sickly as a child w/ asthma-elected to NYS legislature
-1884- mother and sister die same day
-worked on a cattle ranche
-head of nyc police
-assistant secretary of navy
-fought in spanish american war w/ rough riders
-became governor of ny where he worked for reform
-became vice president then president when mckinely was assasinated
Northern securities case
this was a trust that controlled the three major railroads of northwest u.s. that was put together by j.p. morgan. t.r. had the justice of dept. take them to court for violation of the sherman antitrust act. supreme court ordered the trust to be broken up.
how many trustbuster suits did Pres. T.R. file and win?
filed- 44
won- 25
what was T.R. the first pres. to do?
to help the struggling labor movement- hekped to settle a national coal strike by threatening to use troops to run the mines.
square deal
T.R. promised americans an equal oppurtunity to succeed. helped him to win landslide victory in the election.
Bull mooose party
progressive party made up of T.R. and his supporters
elkins act
outlawed rebates
hepburn act
gave ICC (interstate commerce commission) greater power, including the right to set railroad rates
election of 1912
-William Howard Taft (Republican)
-Woodrow Wilson (Democrat)
-T. Roosevelt (Prgressives/Bull Moose)
-t.r. at first supported taft but then was not pleased w/ him and ran against him
-Wilson winsssss!!! (taft n t.r. had gained more votes than wilson together but b/c of the splitting of republican party in progressive they helped wilson win)
New Freedom
pres. wilson's program that wanted to break up trusts into smaller companies to restore the competition that had once existed in the american economy. said if american could not have free enterprise then she could have no freedom at all. wilson worked at this by lowering tariff to create more competition for foreign goods. also imposed graduated income tax to make up for lowering tariffs
federal reserve act
law passed by wilson to regulate banking
Federal Trade Commission
had the power to investigate companies and order them to stop using unfair business practices. (wilson)
How did wilson help child labor?
passed child labor laws that were later declared unconstitutional
Clayton Antitrust Act
stronger againstr trusts than sherman antitrust act- banned some business practices that limited competition , could not be used against unions (major victory for labor)
people who campaigned for women's right to vote.
National Woman Suffrage Association
group formed by Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton that worked to amend the Constitution to give women the right to vote.
4 western states where women gained the right to vote in the late 1800's
Wyoming, Idaho, Colorado, Utah
How did women's suffrage movement gain strength in the early 1900's?
more women were earning wages outside the home and had more power
Carrie Chapman Catt
-head of the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA)
-inspired speaker and brilliant organizer who led suffragists in her campaign for the vote
-used strong measures such as picketing the white house
Alice Paul
-one of the leading protesters outside the white house
-a quaker (believed in equality of the sexes)who had marched w/ suffragists in England
-was arrested at the white house and went on a hunger strike in jail, which brought attention to the cause.
19th amendment
tide began to turn in favor of womens suffrage by 1918. president wilson agreed to support the suffrage amendment. congress passed amendment in 1919 and it was ratified in 1920
Myra Bradwell
-woman of illinois who was affected by the states refusing to grant women licenses to practive law or medicine
-illinois denied bradwell law license for 21 years and after finally receiving her license, she argued cases before the supreme court
what important advances in womens professions were made by 1900? (numbers)
1,000 women lawyers and 7,000 women doctors in practice
What did women speak out against during the progressive era?
trusts, child labor, racial separation,unsafe food, and the sale of alcohol. they also continued their long battle for the right to vote.
temperance crusade
many women were united behind the temperance movement or the crusade against alcohol. many saw alcohol as a threat to their families.
frances willard
an important leader of the Women's christian temperance union (wctu)
-urged states to pass laws banning the sale of alcohol
carry nation
temperance crusade who, after her husband died of heavy drinking, dedicated her life to fighting alcohol. destroyed containers of alcohol in saloons and taverns and went on lecture tours across the u.s. and europe.
18th amendment
made it illegal to sell alcoholic drinks anywhere in the u.s.
-ratified in 1919
vocational education
learning trades
what did african americans face during progressive period?
came under attack during this period
-jim crow laws were still in place in the south
-northern blacks faced prejudice also
-during the 1890's, lunch mobs murdered more than 1,000 blacks in the south
ida b. wells
muckraking journalist who investigated lynchings of african americans in her hometown, memphis, tennesse and urged protests in the african american communities. wrote about it in her newspaper, free speech
Booker T. Washington
stressed economic improvement through learning trades and earning money with increased education. he said then african americans would have the power to insist on political and social equality. founded Tuskegee Institute in alabama, a center for black higher education. seemed to accept segregation. was a national spokesperson for african americans
-consulted by presidents for advice on racial issues
-stressed living in harmony w/ whites
w.e.b. du bois
-harvard educated-first african american to earn a Ph.D there.
-disagreed with washington-stressed activism to fight discrimination
-joined with jane addams, lincoln steffens, and other reformers to form the national assocation for the advancement of colored people (naacp).
-was a professor, author, and public speaker
National Association for the advancement of colored people (NAACP)
-formed by w.e.b. du bois, jane addams, lincoln steffens, and other reformers
-stressed economical, political, and especially legal methods to gain equality
-eventually (in 1940's and 1950's), the naacp sponsored legal suits which ended legal segregation
-decisions for: intergration for theaters, jury, military, education
-declared grandfather clause unconstitutional
madam c.j. walker
-first american woman of any race to earn over $1 million
-sold beauty products
george washington carver
noted scientist who discovered new uses for crops grown in south-particularly peanuts-stressed crop rotation-changed farming practices
what racial problems did asian americans encounter?
many japanese entered the u.s.-there was resentment against them
gentlemans agreement
american farmers and factory workers resented the newcomers. they called for limits on japanese immigration. japan agreed to limit the number of owrkers coming to the u.s. in exchange, the u.s. allowed the wives of japanese men already here to join them.
what racial problems did mexican americans face?
in 1910, many mexicans came to the u.s. to escape revolution and famine in mexico
-they encountered discrimination and formed their own neighborhoods, called barrios.
-protested violence against them-formed mutualistas, or mutual aid groups-members pooled money to buy insurance and pay for legal advice.