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83 Cards in this Set

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mesoamerica
area that stretches south from central mexico to the northern reaches of modren-day honduras
Olmec
mesoamericas first known civilzation builders
where did the olmec start their socierty?
southern mexico, on the gulf coast
in modern day mexican states of veracruz and tabasco
when?
1200bc
what is olmec often called?
mesoamericas "mother culture"
why?
bc they influenced neighboring groups, as well as the later civilizations of the region
when did the olmecs flourish from?
1200 bc-400 bc
climate of gulf coast
hot and humid
covered with swamps and jungle
a lot of rain that caused severe flooding
advantages to the region
deposits of salt, tar, and clay
stone from hills for tools
rivers for transportation
fertile land for farming
oldest Olmec site
San Lorenzo 1150 bc
how was san lorenzo organized?
home to small ruling class of piests and nobles that may have commanded large group of peasant farmers living in surrounding areas
La Venta
significant olmec site where mounds of earth and clay were found, called the Great Pyramid
what might the great pyramid have been?
the center of the olmec relgion
what spirit did most olmec worship?
the jauguar spirit, half-man, half jaguar
olmec trade
were a prosperous people and had a large trading network throughout mesoamerica
how far did they trade?
mexico city north
honduras south
why do scholars believe olmec collapsed?
1. outside invaders caused the destruction
2. olmec may have destroyed their own monuments upon the death of their rulers
did the olmec have wirrten records?
no
zapotec
another people who dveloped n advanced society
where did they live?
in what is now the mexican state of Oaxaca
oaxaca valley
has fertile soil, mild climate, and enough rainfall to support agriculture
what is the rest of oaxaca's climate like
hot and dry
san jose mogote
the main power in the zapotec region
what are 2 accomplishments of the zapotec?
1. hieroglyphics writing
2. calendar system
Monte Alban
the first real urban center built by the zapotecs on tip of a mountain
when did the zapotec begin to decline?
some time after ad 600
when did they begin?
by the time the olmec collapsed
why do scholars think the zapotec declined?
they may have suffered a loss of trade or other economic difficulties
olmec leaves mark
influenced maya
-pattern of urban design
-notions of planned ceremonial cneters, ritual ball games, and elite ruling class
-carved out stone symbols that influenced later glyph writing
zapotec contributions
-hieroglyphics
-calendar system based on the sun
-americas first city builders
where did south americas first civilizations emerge>
in the northern andes region, in what is now peru
why was peeru a difficult place to launch a civilization?
andes are steep and rocky w/ poor soil
hot and dry during the day, freezing at night
where did the first settlements occur?
in rivers valleys where rivers cross the desert on their path from the mountains to the sea
what were the first inhabitants along the pacific coast like?
they were hunter-gatheres who relied on seafood and small fame for their survival
when did they start to farm?
around 3000 bc
Chavin
first influential civilization in south america
where was it ligcated?
in the northern highlands of peru, in the mountains
when did it florush from?
around 900 bc to 200 bc
why do archaeologists conclude that the chavin were primarily a religious civilization?
they found no evidence of poolitical or economic organization within the culture
how did the chavin act as a "mother culture"
it may have established certain patterns that helped unify andean culture and lay the foundation for later civilations in peru
nazca
culture that flourished along the southern coast of peru from around 200 bc to ad 600
since the area was extremely dry what did the nazca do?
they devleoped extensive irrigation systems
what are they known for?
their beautiful textiles and pottery that feature images of animals and mythological beings
nazca lines
made huge drawings by scpraing away stones to reveal lighter soil underneath
depicted animals and plants
-are so big they can only be seen from the air
why do scientists bleieve the nazaca made nazca lines
for their gods
where was moche culture
northern coast of peru
when did it last from?
ad 100 to ad 700
how did they take advantage of the rivers that flowed from the andes mountains?
they built irrigation systems to water their crops
what did their tombs uncover?
enormous wealth
what did their pottery show and why is it helpful?
scenes from overday life that provide detail of their life since they didnt have a written language
what questions remain about the moche?
relgious beliefs, why moche fell
beringia
land bridge from asia to the americas
how experts believe the first ppl came to the americas
when did the first americans come?
toward the end of the last ice age
when did the last ice age last from
1.6 million to 10,000 bc
ice age
period where huge sheets of moving ice, called glaciers, spread southward from the artcitc circle. coered large protions of north america. lowered sea levels and created beringia
the very first americans
herds of wild animals came across the land bridge and siberian hunters follow
range of years the first americans arrived
40,000 BC TO 12,000 BC
Clovis, new mexico
where the earliest evidence of humankind in the americas is found, dating back to 9500 bc
monte verde chile
evidence of human life dating back to 10,500 bc
how else could ppl have got to america besides the land bridge?
paddled from asia to the pacific coast in small boats
what kind of people were the earliest americans?
hunters
what was their most challenging and rewarding prey?
the mastodon
why do they think the earliest americans were hunters
they found chiseled spearheads and charred bones at ancient sites
what did the earliest americans find it necessary to do bc they were hhunters?
they moved regularly in search of food. when they did settle in one place for a short time, they lived in caves or temporary shelters
what happened at the end of the ice age around 12,000 to 10,000 years ago?
the great glaciers melted and rose the sea levels. the land gridge disappeared under the berling straight
when did people inm exico begin to grow edible plants?
5000 bc
maize
corn
when did early farmers start growing maize?
3400 bc
what did maize soon become?
the most important crop
Tehuacan Valley
south of present-day mexico
where people settled in permanent villages
chinampas
floating gardens that were very productive and yielded up to three harvests a year
what did the cultivation of corn and other crops do?
-provided a more reliable and expanding food supply
-encouraged population growth and the establishment of large, settled communities
-farming become more effiecent and ppl turned their attention to nonagricultural puersuits
-difference in social classes emerged
they worshipped the jaguar spirit
olmec
they are considered a "mother culture"
olmec
2 ancient ppl of mesoamerica
olmec and zapotec
they developed a means of moving massive sculptures
olmec
they dominated oaxaca for more than a thousand years
zapotec
they are well-known for sculpting monumental stone heads
olmec
the remains of their communities have been discovered at san lorenzo and la centa
olmec
which society's influence is demonstrated to us primarily through the spread of its art styles and religious images?
chavin
which society sppears to have been extraordinarily wealthy and enjoyed a widely varied diet?
moche
which society is believed, based on images found on its artworks, to have been headhunters?
nazca
which sciety is considered the first influential society in south america?
chavin