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96 Cards in this Set

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lyndon b. johnson
president
-had vast experience as a leader in congress
-wanted to end poverty
Great Society
programs that johnson was able to pass from JFK's legislation as well as programs of his own
Medicare
-part of Great Society
-the government helped to pay the hospital bills of citizens over age 65
medicaid
-part of GS
-gave states money to help poor people of all ages with their medical bills
"war on poverty" bill
economic opportunity act:
-set up job-training programs to the poor and gave loans to poor farmers and to businesses in poor sections of cities
Civil Rights Act of 1964
outlawed discrimination in housing and segregation in public places
Affirmative Action
policy in education and employment to counter years of discrimination and unequal conditions
-employees and institutions raised minority and female emplyees
HUD
-part of GS
-congress created the department of housing and urban development, or HUD, to carry out programs to build housing for low-income and middle-income families
Head Start
-part of GS
-program for preschoolers from disadvantaged homes to help with readiness for school
why were there protests while johnson was in office?
LBJ increased US involvement in Vietnam-troops increased to over 550,000-this increased opposition to the war and protests
why did johnson not run for reelection in 1968
b/c of the protests, he hoped to bring calm to the nation
robert kennedy
seemed likely to win the democratic nomination in 1968, but was assassinated in june 1968
election of 1968
hubert humprey (DEM) vs. Richard Nixon (rep) plus george wallace (3rd party)-Nixon won in a close election-he had stated that he had a "secret plan" to end the vietnam war
what did nixon cut from the great society?
funds for job training, low income housing, and education
silent majority
the americans nixons sided with who were disturbed by protests and unrest
watergate affair
nixon was involved in a break-in at the democratic party headquarters in the Watergate building-tapes revealed he knew of plans for the break-in plus the cover up after. nixon resigned before he could be impeached, but he would have been removed from office
how did nixon improve relations with china?
he recognized communist china, began talks with china, and traveled there
gerald ford
was appointed as vice president when spira agnew resigned due to a scandal. he immediately pardoned nixon after he became president
superpower
a nation with enough military, political, and economic strength to influence events in many areas of the globe
-the u.s. and the soviet union were superpowers in cuba
fidel castro
in 1959, led a revolution in cua-took over american-owned businesses-set up a socialist state (where government owns major industries)
u.s. attempt to overthrow castro
cuban exiles, organized by the CIA, attempted to overthrow castro in an unsuccessful invasion in 1961. USSR sent military aid to cuban including atomic missiles aimed at the u.s. mainland
cuban missile crisis
in oct. 1962, jfk delcares a blockade around cuba until missiles are removed. world war III was a possibility but USSR backed down and removed missiles in return for promise of no more invasions and removal of UUS missiles in turkey
berlin wall
to prevent more east germans from fleeing to the west, the berlin wall was erected in 1961
ussr in czecheslovakia
soviet troops invade czechoslavakia in 1968 to put down a new more democratic government there
detente
an easing of tensions
how did the us ease tensions with the ussr
nixon visited the soviet union (first visit since the cold war begna after wwII)
-SALT agreement
SALT agreement
-strategic arms limitation talks
-signed by u.s. and ussr to limit nuclear warheads and missiles
how did detente end between the u.s. and the u.s.s.r.
in 1979 with the soviet union invasion of afghanistan
vietnam was a colony of who?
the french
Ho Chi Minh
a vietnamese nationalist/leader who led a war for independence in vietnam after WWII
how was vietnam split in two?
in 1954, at an internation gonference in geneva, switzerland divided vietnam temporarily into two parts, nort vietnam, which was communist, and south vietnam, which was non-communist. elections were planned to unite the country, but they were never held.
who did the us support in vietnam?
south vietnam
guerillas
fighters who use hit and run attacks. they do not wear uniforms or fight in large forces
vietcong
to oppose diem, leader of south vietnam, many peasants hoined this group of communist guerillas who supported north vietnam
dominoe theory
the u.s. feared that if all of vietnam became communist, other countries in south east asia would fall to communism also
how did the u.s. get involved in vietnam?
the u.s. sent military advisers to south vietnam and eventually sent troops. war was never declared but congress passed the gulf of tonkin Resolution. By 1968, 550,000 americans were fighting in vietnam
gulf of tonkin resolution
allowed the president to take measures to respond to armed attacks
why was vietnam a difficult war?
b/c it was unclear who the enemy was
Vietcong as unclear enemy
were peaceful peasants by day and warriars at night
what weapons used by the u.s caused destructive results to the vietnamese people and homeland?
napalm (bomb) and agent orange (spray to kill vegetation)
what wwere americans point of view on the war?
americans watched the horrors of the war (villages burning and civilians killed) on television news. support for the war weakened and protests grew stronger. college students held sit-ins and marches saying that american lives and money were being wasted b/c of an unjust war, and that the south vietnam government was no better than n. vietnam or vietcong
how did the war in vietnam end?
in 1968, nixon promised to withdraw all troops. over a five-year period, troops were withdrawn while nixon also began to bomb vietcong supply routes in laos. oppostion to the war increased and congress proposed legislation to cut off funding for the war. peace talks were geld in paris and a cease-fire agreement was reached in 1973.
what happened to vietnam after the cease-fire agreemnet?
fighting continued in vietnam. south vietnam, though still receiving u.s. aid, was overrun by north vietnam in 1975. soon after communist forces captured south vietnam's capital, vietnam was reunited and is communist today
segregations laws in early 1960's
kept blacks and whites separated in bus stations, rest rooms, and other public places
sit-ins
african american students would sit at segregated lunch counters and refuse to move
freedom rides
interracial groups rode through the south on buses to protest segregated seating and facilities-organized by congress of racial equality
peaceful civil disobediance
was encouraged despite harsh tactics by police and violence against black leaders
march on washington
-1963- organized by martin luther king jr.-200,000-300,000 marchers wanted laws to end discrimination and help for the poor. MLK's famous "i have a dream" speech
voting rights act
ended literacy tests. allowed for federal officials to register voters in states where local officials practiced discrimination
black power
blacks sgould use their votes, control of communities, pressure government for concessions to free themselves of white political and cultural domination
black muslims
believed in separation of the races
malcolm x
militant black muslim-changed his views to white-black brotherhood right before his assassination in 1965
black panthers
believed in arming themselves and fighting for rights-also involved in anti-poverty activities
HOW MAN LATIONS LIVED IN THE U.S. BY THE 1970'S
10 MILLION
puerto rico
PUERTO RICANS BECAME US CITIZENS-BECAME A SELF-GOVERNING COMMON-WEALTH in 1952- in 1950's many left puerto rico for work in cities along the east coast of u.s.
cubans
200,000 cubans fled from cuba when fidel castro came to power in 1959. most settled in southern florida and adapted quickly. they have become an important force in southern florida
mexican americans
many lived in southwest before the mexican war-many migrated after 1910--between 1960 and 1980, most immigrants came from mexico
Voting Rights Act of 1975
areas with large numbers of non-english speakrers must hold billinguel elections
Bilingual Education Acts
promoted billingual programs in schools
national farm workers association
union for migrant workers-formed my cesar chavez-used nonviolent tactics and nationwide boycott of grapes and lettuce-won better wages
native americans
worked to regain their lands through legal action
-organized protests
american indian movemnt
occupied wounded knee in 1973-wanted fair treatment
Betty Friedan
founded national organization of women, which worked for equal rights and equal pay
Equal Pay Act
required equal pay for equal work
equal rights amendment
amendment for equal rights
civil rights act of 1964 (women)
outlawed discrimination in hiring as well as on race
regan and other conservatives views
-federal social programs were too costly
-government regulations kept businesses from growing
-called for return to tradtional values-family life, loyalty,and patirotism
regan economic policies
-cut taxes=people save money and buy more to help the banks and economy
-cut government spending-reduce social programs like welfare and education
-reduced government regulations
balanced budget
government spends only as much as it takes in from taxes-regan tried this but sharply increased military spending b/c of ussr
president bush taxes
-said no new taxes but raised taxes in order to save some popular programs-many supporters felt betrayed
bush baking crisis
regan took away reulgations-baks made risky or illegal loans-sometimes loans were not paid back and banks lost $-hundreds of banks went bankrupt in late 1980's
downsizing
businesses trying to cut costs by using dwer people to do the same work more effieciently
recession
economic slump milder than a depression-banks bakrupt plus downsizing leaving people out of work plus raised taxes
sandra day o'connor
first woman to serve as a justice on the court
how did bush and reagan extend their ocnservative resolution to supreme court
between them appointed 5 new justices-showed conservative bent in several major decisions
election of 1992
bush (rep) clinton (dem) ross perot (independent candidate) clinton wins
clinton policies
-increased taxes and reduce gov. spending
-added programs to stimulate the economy and help rebuild the nation-ex. Americirps-volunteers worked in communities in exchange for help with college tuition
clinton health care policies
-national system guaranteed health insurance for almost all americans, but congress defeated this plan-most though it would be too costly
republican programs
-in 1994 republicans held majority in supreme court and the house of reps. - dem. congress and dem. president did not work well togetheer
-republicans cut back on social welfare programs, eliminated environment regulations, allowing businesses to expand more easily, cut taxes
president clinton reaction
vetoed republican budget--republicans cut off funds, forcing governmnet agencies to close for several weeks
-congress compromised with president and enacted laws to fight crime and drugs, to reform welfare, and to promise education
1996 election
clinton (dem) vs. bob dole (rep)--veteran of world war II--proposed tax cut -clinton said nation cud not afford tax cut
cliton won
nov. 1989
berlin wall came down
star wars
reagans defense program which included research on weapons that he hoped would shoot down soviet missiles from space
glasnost
policy of speaking out honestly and openly
mikhail gorbachec
leader in ussr in 1985-believed to take a bold step to improve the failing soviet economy-wanted to improve relations w/ u.s.
INF treaty
gorbachev and regan met 3 times and signed an arms control pact-in this treaty, the superpowers agreed to get ride of short-range and medium-range missiles
what did gorbachev do in 1989 that was nice ot the u.s.
withdrew soviet troops from afghanistan-removed another barrier to cooperation with ussr and us
solidarity
rejecting communism, the poles voted into office all the candidates of a worker's trade union, called soildarity. -new solidarity leader, lech walesa, became head of government and held first free elections in 50 years
where communists fell
romania-demonstrators overthrew and executed a brutal dictator.
-communist governmnets also gell in hungary, czechoslavakia, bulgaria, and albania
soviet union falls
-ussr made of 15 republics
-unrest led ethnic groups to demand self-rule
-gorbachev announced new moves toward democracy-new polictical parties could form which would go against communists
-communist officials tried to overrun new reforms-held gorbachev captive and sent military to parliament in moscow-republic after republic declares independence
-gorbachev resigned and ussr ceased to exist
commonwealth of independent states
-replaced ussr
-made of 15 former republics of ussr
-russia had most influence-boris yeltsin was president-helped rebuild economy w/ free market
0got aid from us
-yelstin reeelecteed over communist opponent
civil war in yugoslavia
serbs in bosnia and croatia (yugoslavia republics) fought to prevent new governments from slipping away from yugoslavia-serbs got most control-forced bosnian muslims to detendion camps-"ethnic cleansing"
-us hosted peace talks
jimmy carter
-governor of georgia
-stressed being an outsider
--could not pass much legislation
-stressed human rights ex. boycott of moscow olympics
helenski accords
agreement to protect human rights
problems during carter
inflation
-hostage crisis-1979-iran seized u.s. embassy and kept americans hostage for 14 months
ronald reagan presidency
-1981-1989
-tax cuts
-raised defense spending
-national debt increased tremendously
-conservative-cut social spending ex. poor, education