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281 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the four Calvin laws?
1. Bible access for everyone.
2. No wickedness (dancing/cards)
3. No rude songs
4. 9pm curfew
What are the three types of protestants?
Calvinism, Anglican, Luthernism
What did Martin Luther nail to the church door?
The 95 theses.
What did Luther burn in public?
The bull issued by Pope Leo X.
Why did people want to be a protestan?
1. High church taxes (tithes).
2. Scandals with the Pope Leo X.
3. Poor were taxed.
4. God serves through faith not money.
How did Martin Luther spread Protestantism?
1. Using the printing press he prints the bible in several different languages.
2. He also made public speeches.
How did the Catholics try to stop Protestantism?
1. Threaten excommunication.
2. They massacred them (killed)
What does Inquisition mean?
The church put non-believers on trial and killed them.
Heracy- the crime that they are charged with.
What was the St. Bartholemews Massacre?
Queen of France is at a wedding, she ordered all the Protestants to be killed at the wedding. She started a religious war.
Who was King Henry the IV?
Started the Protestants Church in England.
Who was Leonardo Da Vinvi?
First designed the parachoute, flying machine, tank, helicopter.
He was a painter, sculpter, an inventor, did not recieve a classic education.
Who was Galileo?
Made a telescope.
Put on the Inquisition for heracy.
Theory that the Earth was not the center of the universe, instead the Sun was.
Studying Jupiter and its moons.
Who was Michelangelo Buanorotti?
Known for David, and Pieta.
Painted the ceiling of the Sisteen Chapel.
Angered the Pope.
Best sculptor in Europe.
Who was Machiavelli?
A humanist. Thought that the leader was better to be feared then loved.
He wrote the Prince.
He was also a politician.
Who was Shakespeare?
A famous playwrighter.
Elizabethian Theatre.
He wrote 37 plays.
Married Anne Hathaway.
His father was head of the town council in Stratford.
His son died (Hamnet) at the age of 11. Which inspired his play Hamlet.
What does indulgences mean?
You would pay to be forgiven for sin, time off of pergutory.
Who was Erasmus?
A priest.
University of Paris
Taught at a school.
Comical books, attacking the church and clergy.
Trying to fix the church from within.
What is Black Death?
Bubonic plague.
No cure.
Kills 25 million people.
Spread by the extraction of bubo.
What is a city-state?
A self-sufficient city with a surrounding hinterland.
Provides its own food and other neccesities.
Has its own government and mercanary soldiers.
What is nepotism?
The hiring of relatives or friends or people who pay.
What is purgatory?
The place between heaven and hell where a soul waits.
What is flying buttress?
An arch-way that supports a wall.
Who were the Germanic Peoples?
Franks, Angles, Saxons, Jutes, Goths, Vandal, Lombards.
Moved into the Roman Empire - attracted to the money of the Roman Empire.
Gaul Britain and Spain
Who were the Franks?
The Franks were a group of Germanic Peoples.
Ruled by the Merovingians.
Conquered much of Gaul (France).
What does the name, Frank, mean?
Meant to be free, Frankish word Franchise.
What were the Franks like (hair, behaviour etc)?
Thought highly of themselves
Wore hair long.
All wore jewellery.
What was a francisca?
A type of throwing axe.
Who were the Merovingians?
A royal family who ruled the Franks for almost three hundred years.
Who was Clovis l and what did he do?
A member of the Merovingian family.
Most succesful.
Found the county of France, and made Paris its capital.
What happened to the kingdom after Clovis died?
The kingdom was divided among his children.
What was the law of the Franks called?
Salic Code.
What was the Merovingian family famous for?
Trachery and murderous fighting.
Kings and queens committed murders with their own hands.
Many were killed by members of their own famiy.
Describe the law of the Franks.
Placed a monetary volue on every piece of property and on every person.
If property was stolen or a person injured of killed, a find called wergild had to be paid to the owner of the property or the victim's family.
What was a wergild?
:Man-money, that is a person's value in money.
What 3 things were used to determine the social class you were in?
Class can be determined by money, role in society, or one's parentage.
What were the jobs of most Franks?
People who worked the land on their lord's manor, or estate.
Why was it not great to be a serf?
That is the lowest of the low, were not allowed to move away from the manor. The serfs were at the mercy of the weather.
The lords and rulers could steal serfs' crops at any time.
They rose taxes towards the serfs when food was scarce.
Who was Charlemagne?
A ruler of the Franks.
Came into power 768.
Also known as Charles the Great.
Who was his father?
Pepin the Short.
How did his father come to power?
By throwing out the last of the Merovingian rulers, who ahd come to be known as the "do-nothing" kings.
The pope agreed to recognize Pepin as king because Pepin's father, Charles martel, had defeated a Muslim army that had threatened to conquer Europe in 732.
What was his new empire called?
Carolingian Empire.
How long did his new empire last for?
44 Years
Where was his palace?
HIs palace was in Aachen.
Now known as Germany.
What was Charlemagne interested in?
Rebuilding civilization, and he had the power and intelligence to do so.
Reviving the practice of architecture.
Interesting in science and literature.
What were the Missi Dominici, and what did they do?
The were the lords messengers.
To make sure that people were treated properly.
What did Charlemagne accomplish? (Think about education, architecture etc)
HE created a single code of laws for the whole empire.
Tried to make things better for the serfs and tradespeople.
Charlemagne defeated the Saxons.Established new schools and monansteries and encouraged the learning of the Latin classics.
Had many stone chruches and palaces built in France and Germany.
What was the Renaissance? What does this word mean?
A rebirth of revival, especially of the arts.
Why did the Angles, Saxons, and the Jutes move into Britain?
They were attracted to the Roman Empire because of its money.
Where did the Celtic people go once they left Britain?
Wales, Cornwall, Scotland and Ireland.
What were the Anglo Sacons noted for in history?
Skilled metal workers.
Great story tellers, who created wonderful epics such as Beowulf.
Where did the Celtics settle?
Scotland, Ireland, Wales, Cornwall.
Who was William the Conqueror?
He took possession of England.
Decided that the eudal system he was familiar with in Normandy would also work well in his new kingdom.
Which land did William the Conqueror control?
Whwat sydem did he begin in his new country?
The feudal System.
What were the 3 F's?
Fief (land), fealty (loyalty), and faith (religion).
All part of the feudal system.
What 4 obligations did the noble have towards the king?
All the nobles had to serve in the kings army for a certain number of days each year usually around fourty.
They had to supply the king with additional knights in the time of war.
The nobles were expected to seve in the king;s court and to give him advice on political matters.
They ha to give the king money on certain ocasions, such as when his oldest son was knighted or when a daughter got married.
What did the nobles recieve from the king in exchange for ulfilling their obligations?
Nobles had the right to their monarch's protection and justice.
The king defended his nobles from attack and settled disputes that arose between two or more nobles.
What was the Oath of Allegiance?
:A oath of loyalty.
What was a feudal contract?
:A formal agrement.
What was a vassal?
:One who swears loyalty to a lord.
Who was the Lord of the Manor?
:the tenant of a noble, who has the inherited right to run a manor and profit from it.
Who worked on the land?
Serfs and freeholders.
What was the difference between a serf and a freeholder?
A freeholder owns his or her land.
A serf just works on it.
What was a fief?
What was a manor?
:A manor were fiefs divided into parcels of lands.
What did each manor have?
Farming lands, woodlands, common pasture, and at least on village.
Where was a monar village usually located and why?
Almost always located by a river or a stream.
The stream powered the mill to grind grain for bread, and along the river banks were hay fields that provided winter feed for livestock.
What was the demesne?
:lands set aside for the lord of the manor.
What was the desmesne used for?
For the lords own use and personal profit.
What were bailiffs and what did they do?
The person who collected rents and supervised serfs and freeholders on the manor.
What was the 3-field system?
It was a system used to increase their harvest.
For each field, the grew cereal one year and a nitrogen generating crop the second.
In the third year, the field was left fallow.
What does the term fallow mean?
:ploughed and left unseeded.
Why did they follow a 3 field system?
Because iwth three fields, the farmers could always have two fields producing crops while the third lay fallow. They thereby struck a sustainable balance between maintaining the productivity of their fields and planting enough crops to feed the local population.
How were serfs treated?
LIke slaves.
Did serfs have any rights? Why or why not? If so what were they?
most serfs had the right to farm a particular strip so that each serf would have easy acces to water on the river. The rights to stripers were passed on within families from generation to generation. SErfs turned over a percnetage of the produce they grew to the lord of the manor. They were allowed to sell any produce left over after they had fed their families and paid there lords.
They could also have small vegetable and herb gardens. Many owned a few cows, some sheep, a horse or two, a few pigs, and some chickens or ducks.
What did the serfs do for the lord?
All serfs had to donate two or three days of work each week to ploughing planting, wedding, and harvesting the lord's demesne.
How did serfs get food to eat?
They would sell any produce left over after they had fed their families and paid their lord.
How were the rights of freeholders different from the right of serfs?
Freeholders had more rights because the could actually own their land. They paid money to the lord but did not have to work on the lord's demesne. They also had the right to leave the village or the farm whenever they pleased.
Where did serfs live?
In the manor village.
What were the serf houses made out of?
Wood ar wattle and daub, and roofed them with thatch. The floor was packed dirt.
What was the inside of their house like?
Very small no chimney just a hole, usually about five or six people shared one dirty room, often with some farm animals and enough vermin to make a louse comb a common possession.
Why was it not enjoyable to live in a serf house?
It was disgusting crowded, unsanitary, very low.
Who worked in the fields?
Babies went to the fields with their mothers, and children learn quickly how to o farm work. The whoole family helped with planting and garvesting.
What were the duties of a female (wife) serf?
Keeping her family ed and clothed.
She wove cloth, made cothes, bwed beer, baked bread, cooked meals, preserved foor for winter, and cared for the children. Gathered firewood, and hay and cornstalks ffor the farm animals. They also collected nuts berries and hers.
Why didnt gradparents help out?
Grandparents were seldom available to help with child care because most people died young.
What were the duites of the husband?
Ploughing planting weeding and harvesting. Without the benefits of modern machinery.
How long did they work each day?
From sunrise to sunset
Describe the manor house.
Occupied the largest best house on the manor and were attended by a whole team of servents.
Severyal rooms. large hall where the lord would look after the affairs off the manor and entertain guests.
The walls were draped with elaborate tapestries to keep out the cold, and every room had furniture: a small table some wooden chests a few good chairs maybe even a good book or too-all very expensive items.
Servants laid fresh rushes on the stone floor several times a year.
Why were the tapestries on the walls?
To keep out the cold.
Were the manor houses comfortable? Why or why not?
It was for them becuase they were used to the conditions.
But from more modern views, it would not have been comfortable because it was cold no running water, and people have very little privacy.
What special things did the lord and lady own as symbols of their status?
Costly rare things.
What did they do for recreation?
What were troubadors and what did they do?
:A medieval singer who wrote and sang poems about chivalry and love
What did the lord have to give in echange for his manor, and what would happen if he didn't gie it?
In return for the manor, the tenant-in-chief expected a pay-back. If the lord failed to lie up to his end of the bargain, perhaps by not sending the required number of knights to fight for the tenant-in-chief, he culd lose the manor.
One of the duties was to marry and have children.
Why did the lord have to marry?
To keep his house, and have children.
To also find children with themost amount of land possible.
Who arranged the marriages in this time?
How did they pick a suitable husband or wife?
By the amount of land the other person had.
Why was it important for women to marry?
Before a marriage, a girls father will control her life
Did women have many rights? Why or why not?
They did not have any rights before they were married. Their fathers would control their lives. As they married the husbands would control their lives. But they would have more rights. Once the woman is widowed then she has many more rights.
What happened to a woman's property when she got married?
Her property would go to the husband.
What happened to a woman's rights when her husband died?
She has more rights.
SHe kept their rights, their property, and their freedom. Many rich widows absolutely refused to remarry, even when pressured by the king to do so.
What religion did most peole follow during the Medieval Ages?
What did Christians believe?
They believed absolutely that every single person had to struggle between good and evil throughout thei rlives, and that each person would be judged after death.
What happened to good and bad people after death?
They learned as children that good people went to heaen and bad people suffered in hell for eternity.
Why did they take part in religious ceremonies?
They believed that by taking part in various religious ceremonies their sins-the evil they had done-would be forgiven and they could avoid the agonies of hell.
How did the people explain the bad things that happened in their lives?
They believed that the evidence of God's handin their everyday lives, bringing them succes or failure rain or drought. When things went badly, they believe they were being punished for their sins.
What was a relic?
:An item, associated with a saint: thought to have great powers.
Which was the only religious institiution during this time in Europe?
The Catholic Church.
What was excommunication?
:To cancel a person's membership in the church.
Why did people fear excommunication?
People feard excommunication because they felt certain it meant they would go to hell.
Describe how much power the church had.
The Church had a great amount of power over the lives of everyone, including monarchs, brought a balance to medieval liffe, putting church and state on an equal footing.
How did the Church get money?
The Church was supported by a tax on villagers called a tithe. Some churches grew very rich because they had teir own lands and were situated in rich towns or villages.
How did priests get rich?
Some priests got rich by keeping most of the income from their churches and paying replacements low wages.
What were the two ways of deciding if a person was innocent or guilty?
Trial by Ordeal or Trial by Battle.
Men that become part of the church were called what?
Where did they live?
In a monastery
What were the women called?
Where did they live?
What issues did the most common court deal with? (Atleast 5 issues)
Farming and property, minor disputers, etty criminals, charges of assault, public drunkenness, petty theft, and other small crimes.
Could Serfs sue?
What vows did the religious people take?
They took vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience.
What did they usually do during their free time?
Some spent time studying. some praying, and others doing various kinds of work. The copying and illustrating of books was both common and encouraged.
Describe what trial by ordeal was.
Trial by ordeal came in several varieties. A person might have to swallow poison, pull an object from boiling oil, walk over nine red-hot piece o iron a certain distance. If the burn from the ordeal became infected, the judges wold rule the person guilty.
Describe what trial by battle was.
In trial by batter, two nobles. would fight, often until one of them died. The winner was assumed to be innocent because God protected innocent people. ONly noblemen ad the right to trial by battle. A noblewoman had the right to select a champion to fight on her behalf.
If you were accused of a major crime, which court did you go to?
The Royal Courts.
If clergy members were accused of a crime, which courts did they get sent to?
The Church Courts.
What was the most common kind of court?
The Manor Courts.
What happened if you lied to the court?
There were heavy fines.
What was a steward?
Representative of the lord called a steward, acted as a judge.
What did the steward do?
The steward would act as a judge deciding the sentence of the court, which was usually a fine.
What issues did royal courts deal with? (Atleast 5 issues)
Murder Treason Rape Burglary. Poarching game from the royal forests, cutting trees there, or even taking deadwood to use as fuel.
What law was used by royal courts?
The Common Law.
Why was it called common law?
The reason why it was called the common law was because it was the same for the whole Kingdom.
What punishments could the royal court give out?
What happing if you stole anything more than a shilling?
You would get executed.
Who had the absolute authority over people in the Church?
The Pope.
How did the sentences of the church court compare to that of the royal court?
They were usually lighter sentences, and they could not sentence someone to death.
How did they prove that person worked for the Church?
A literacy test was sometimes used to prove that a person worked for the Church, and therefore should be tried in the more lenient Church Court.
Why did some criminals learn how to read and write?
So that they could pretend to be a member of the clergy. Therefore they would get a lighter sentence and would not be punished with death.
What were the crusades?
The Crusades were wars in which the Christians of Europe fought against the Muslims for control of the Holy Land.
Where was the Holy Land?
Th eare around modern-day Israel where Jesus lived and died.
Why did the Christians want to drive the Muslims out of the Holy Land? (3 reasons)
The deep religious feelings of the medieval Christians, in combination with prejudice against those of another religion and a lust for booty, made many Europeans want to drive the Muslims out of the Holy Land.
Why was Jerusalem important to the Muslims?
It is the second most Holy City in Islam because Muslims believe that Muhammad rose to heae from this place.
Why did Medieval knights want to fight in the Holy wars?
They look at it as guaranteeing themselves a place in heaven. A crusader could also gain an honourable reputation through his warlike deeds.
Many of the knights were land-hungry feudal nobles who hope to win fiefs and even kingsomds from their enemies.
What did the knights hope to win from their enemies?
Fiefs and some kingdoms.
How many crusades took place between 1096 and 1254?
Did ordinary people participate in the crusades?
Which two people leaders led the People's Crusade?
Peter the Hermit and Walter the Penniless
Did this crusade succed? Why or why not?
No, they were attacked and driven from place to place.
What happened to the Children's Crusade?
It ended when most of the children were killed or sold to Arab slave traders in North Africa.
What was the effect of the First Crusade?
It created a Christian kingdom that lasted about 100 years.
Who captured Jerusalem in 1187 and what religion was he?
Muslim leader, the Sultan Sladin, recaptured Jerusalem.
What brought an end to the crusades?
The strength of the united Muslims under Saladin, combined with a lack of direction among the Crusaders, eventually brought an end to the Crusades.
Who eventually won all of the Holy Land?
The Muslims.
What did Europeans learn about the Muslim world from the Crusades?
The Muslim world was a highly advanced civilization. The muslim people were flourishing in the scholarly pursuits of medicine, astronomy, philosophy, mathematics, and literature.
What benefits were brought about as a result of the Crusades? (Atlease 3 in detail)
The xchange of knowledge, resulted in advances in learning in Europe that would lead eventually to the Renaissance.
Sparked trade and expanded Europeans' knowledge of the world.
And created a dsire for oreign goods that would later lead to the European voyages of discovery,
What did the feudal monarch have the power to do? (4 things.)
Make and change laws, to collect some kinds f taxes, to choose advisors, and to give titles and estates.
Was the Monarch's power unlimited? Why or why not?
No it was not.
As a player in the feudel system he had to obey the feudal code.
Who monitored the king's power?
By a small powerfufl group of people: the wealthiest and most powerful nobles, who were called barons.
What happened if the monarch broke the feudal contract?
The barons would feel justified in making war on the sovereign.
Why would it be hard to stop an unexpected rebellion by a baron?
The barons were a considerable threat. These warriors had large armies and strong castles, and could call upon their cassals on short notive to fight for them. The royal army, on the other hand, needed time to collect knights from all over England.
How did the monarch treat barrons and why?
He treated the barrons with the utmost respect.
Who was King John?
King of England.
Known to many of us as the villain of the Robin Hood legend.
How did he first lose the suppot of his people?
Because he quarrelled with Pope Innocent III oer who should appoint the archbishop of Canterbury.
What did the pope do to King John and England?
He excommunicated John and placed the whole of England under an interdice, which banned all church services in the kingdom.
What did John give to the Pope later?
He gave England to the pope as a fief and agreed to rais a tx ffor the pope called "Peter's pence" which every person in the kingdom had to pay.
What negatie actions did John do? (Atleast 6)
He stepped over the bounds of the feudal code many times. So he could huntter, he tore down the hedges that protected peoples crops from wild animals. He imprisoned barons without trial and confiscated their property. He took the relatives of barons as hostages and somtimes tortured them. King Jogn raised illegal taxes and even hired foreign soldiers to fight his own people.
What was the Magna Carta?
The Magna Carta was something that kIng John made that said that he agreed to respect the rights of the English people.
What did the Magna Carta guarantee? (3 things.)
He guaranteed that the free people of England would not be preyed upon by their own ruler; that taxes would not e taken without consent of parliament; and that not person could be arrested or trown into prison without a proper trial.
When was the magna Carta signed?
The Magna Carta was signed on June 15, 1215.
Where was the Magna Carta signed?
The Magna Carta was signed in a meadow near London called Runnymede.
Which two war weapons eventually made geavy plate armour useless?
The longbow and firearms.
What was chivalry?
:the code of honour that every knight swore to uphold was known as chivalry.
What qualities did a knight possess?
Ideally all knights were, brave, generous, and truthful.
What were knights supposed to do?
Knights were supposed to protect women and children and to love and stregthen the Church.
How were serfs treated by knights?
They treated the serfs very badly. Opposite of Chivalry.
How did knights practice for war?
Jousting and hunting
Why did they practice so much for war? (2 reasons)
By perfecting their physical abilities, knights increased their value to their lord and so kept their valued social status and lands. They also increased their chances of staying alive on the battlefield.
At what age would the education of a knight begin?
At the age of 7 or 8.
What was a page?
A page is someone who would wait at a table, learning to ride and fight, and also learning to play music and sing.
What were the duties of a page?
A page is someone who would wait at a table, learning to ride and fight, and also learning to play music and sing.
What did the female attendants teach the page?
Th efemale attendants took a keen interest in the education of the page, music and knightly courtesy.
What happened to a page when he was 14 or 15 years old?
The page was usually accepted by an experienced knight as a squire.
What were his duties?
The young man would serve as the knight's assistant and bodygaurd, attending the knight at tournaments and fighting by his side in battle.
Why did some people remain squires for life?
Some could not affford the necessary armour ad other equipment so he would remain a squire for life.
At what ae did most people become knights?
At about the age of 21.
What did the squire do before his knighting ceremony?
Before the formal cermony, the squire fasted and kept vigil over his armour overnight, often in a chapel. In the morning, freshly bathed and purified, the new knight was dubbed, robed, and armed by his lord.
What did it mean when someone was dubbed?
:to make a person a kinight by touching the should with a sword.
When did the 100 Years' War occur?
What was the 100 Years' War about?
A struggle between the monarchs and nobles of France and England.
How did the 100 Years' War begin?
The war began, as a war about who should be king. The French supported a French cousin of the dead ruler. The English king, Edward III, as a nephew of hte old French king, believed he has a stronger claim, so he invaded France.
What weapen did the English have that the French did not?
Who were the archers?
The archers were ordinary villagers skilled in the use of the long bow.
Why was this weapon so useful?
Becuse it could penetrate a knight's plate armour and kill him. The thrust from such a bow was so powerful that it could sen dan arrow through the armoured leg of a mounted knight, the body his horse, and the knight's leg on the other side.
Which group was defeated the most number of times?
The French.
Why would the French not attack the archers?
They refused to attack anyone of "low birth".
What was a siege?
:the act of surrounding a fortified place in order to capture it.
What happened to the citizens in a kingdom during a siege?
The inhabitants of a town or castle under seige would e treated mercifully if they surrendered.
What type of land surrounded the towns and cities?
What was the bubonic plague?
:a highly contagious, usually fatal disease; swollen lymph glands were a typical symptom.
How was the bubonic plague spread?
Is spread from victim to victim thourgh the fleas on rats, which lived on medieval ships and throughout towns and cities.
What was the black death?
The black death was a variety of bubonic plague.
What symptoms would a person experience from the Black Death?
buboes (swollen lymph glands_ and was covered with dark blotches on the skin. Then the patient would be stricked with a high fever and begin vomiting blood and hallucinating.
Could the plague be cured?
Medieval medicine had no cure for the disease.
What was used to stop the spread of the plague?
Doctors recommended burning sulphur and smelling garlic a ways of preventing the spread of the plague.
What were the Flagellants?
Groups of religious fanatics.
What did they believe?
They spread the idea that the plague was a punishment from God.
How did people act during the time of the plague?
Many priests, nuns, and doctors died because they spent so much time teding the sick. At the other extreme, some parents abandoned their sick children, and thieves robbed corpses or broke into house where everyone had died.
When did the Renaissance begin?
In the fourteenth century.
Where did it begin?
In Italy.
Name two famous artists that lived during this time?
Leonardo Da Vinici, Michelangelo Buonarotti.
Why was the Renaissance able to grow at this time?
Used old Roman Legal Code.
many Roman Ruins, scupltures, osaics, and wall paintings.
Also geography.
Explain how Italian geography contributed to the grow of the Renaissance. (5 detailed reasons.)
Mountainous peninsula -hard for travel and communication.
The climate was milder than that of the countries north of the Alps.
Winter did not disrupt travel, trade and commerce.
Closer ties that the rest of Europe to the Muslim world to the south and east.
What was a city state?
A city-state consists of a city and the rural are immediately surrounding it.
What was a hinterland and what was its function?
:area sourrounding a city.
Provides food and other necessities.
Were city-states always peaceful?
No, war often broke out between the city-states. Because the politics was very complicated.
Which were the two most important Renaissance cities?
Venice and Florence.
Why did Florence become rich?
Both Venice and Florence because rich through the skill of their business people, and bother were large enought to dominate their neighbours.
What was Venice successful as a city? (2 reasons.)
1. Its leaders created a powerful navy through which enice was able to gain control of the trade routes on the Mediterranean Sea.
2. The city's nave and its watery surroundings made the city very difficult to attack succesfully.
Why did Venice have little political freedom? (4 reasons.)
Venice was an oligarchy not a republic.
All citizens were at the mercy of the most powerful arm of the governmentL the secret council Ten, This council had the power to imprison torture and execute any citizen in Venice- All in secret.
The Supreme ruler was elected for life.
How did the Medici family become wealthy and powerful?
They made themselves a fourtune as woold and silk merchnats and as bakers. They built alliances with other weathly famililies, acquired important positions in the Church, and married into the royal families of Europe.
Why couldn't Cosimo de Medici become a dictator?
Because Florence was a republic, Cosimo could not openly declare himself as a dictator.
What was the most famous Medici?
Lorenzo de Medici (Lorenzo the Magnificent)
How did Cosimo gain control of the country?
He used his wealth to buy support and to have his enemies exiled from the city.
What position of power did the most famous Medici attain?
Lorenzo became absolute ruler off florence and held power from 1469 until his death in 1492.
What did the most famous Medici do to improve the arts?
He sponsored many aritists, and thinkers.
What arts was the most famous Medici skilled in?
Poetry and he composed music.
How did the most famous Medici maintain his power?
The same way his grandfather Cosimo de Medici did. By usuing his wealth to increase his popularity by creating a beautiful and well-run city and my makeing sure powerful xitizerns were either on his side or sent into exile.
What was a humanist?
Umanists were more concerned with the goals of human beings than with spiritual matters.
What did the humanists believe?
Humanists believe in useing the power of reason to fin d the truth instead of relying on the Bible of other religious teachings.
Who was the first humanist?
Francesco Petrarch.
What did Petrarch spend his time doing and why?
He spent much time and money collecting and correcting ancient manuscripts.
What was the benefit of Petrarchs efforts?
Many calssical works survived that might otherwise have been lost forever.
Why was Petrarch considered to be a true "renaissance man"?
Many Renaissance artists took Petrarch as their model of the wellrounded person who knew about and was skilled in many different areas.
What was a Renaissance man?
:a term tradittionally used to describe a person skilled in many areas.
Who was Machiavelli?
Machiavelli was a humanist, victim of politics.
What job did Machiavelli do?
He worked for a time as a civil servant and diplomat for the Reublic of Florence
What is Machiavelli's best known book?
The Prince
How did he feel about humanist views? What did Machiavelli believe?
Machiavelli disagreed with the popular Humanist view that people were capable of improving themselves through their own efforts. People, for Machiavelli, were "wretched creatures" who had to be forced by a strong ruler to do what is right.
How did people react to Machiavellis ideas?
Some people accepted his ideas as wise insights into human nature and politics, but others conemned them as evil.
Who controleed the Catholic church?
By powerful families in Italy.
How did Da Vinvi learn to become a good artist?
He was apprenticed to the Florentine painter and sculptor Andrea del Verrocchio.
How did Da Vinci try to learn the truth about the natural world?
Through direct observation and experiments.
What were some of Da Vinci's achievements?
He was the ffirst to design the helicopter tanik parachute flying machine.
What was Da Vinicis most famous work of art?
Mona Lisa
What did Galileo's inventioin do?
This looking glass made small objects seem large. This piece of technology allowed him to see things that no one else had seen before.
What did Galileo learn about Copernicus' theory?
He realized the Copernicus was correct.
Why was Galileo summoned before an Inquisition?
Because several of his discoveries went against the teachings of the CHurch and what was written in the bible.
What is an inquisition?
:a Church court that tried heretics, people who disagreed with Church teachings.
What did the Chruch order Galileo to do?
The court ordered Galileo to accept the Church's view that the Earth was the center of the universe and did not move.
What did Galileo believe about the relationship of the church and scienc?
He believed that one coloud believe in both the Bible and the discoveries of science.
What did the Church threaten Galileo with?
What did Galileo agree to do and what was his sentence?
He agreed to accept the Church's view, and he was sentenced to indefinite house arrest.
How did bishops and cardinals use the money that the church recieved?
They paid great sums for their titles, and then they used the money they recieved ffrom taxes and fees to build themselves fine palaces and collect works of art.
What waas simony?
:the buying and selling of church positions.
What was a bull?
:an official order from the pop with is lead seal, called a "bulla" attatched.
Which reformers were not criticized for their beliefs?
Reformers who avoided criticizing the fundamental teachings of the Church were left in peace.
Who was martin Luther?
A monk
What did Martin Luther do?
Nailed the 95 Theses to a church door
What was ML's famous list called?
95 theses
What did Luther believe about how people could be saved?
That iff a person had faith then that in itself was enough to be saved, that is, go to heaven.
What did Galileo learn about Copernicus' theory?
He realized the Copernicus was correct.
Why was Galileo summoned before an Inquisition?
Because several of his discoveries went against the teachings of the CHurch and what was written in the bible.
What is an inquisition?
:a Church court that tried heretics, people who disagreed with Church teachings.
What did the Chruch order Galileo to do?
The court ordered Galileo to accept the Church's view that the Earth was the center of the universe and did not move.
What did Galileo believe about the relationship of the church and scienc?
He believed that one coloud believe in both the Bible and the discoveries of science.
What did the Church threaten Galileo with?
What did Galileo agree to do and what was his sentence?
He agreed to accept the Church's view, and he was sentenced to indefinite house arrest.
How did bishops and cardinals use the money that the church recieved?
They paid great sums for their titles, and then they used the money they recieved ffrom taxes and fees to build themselves fine palaces and collect works of art.
What waas simony?
:the buying and selling of church positions.
What was a bull?
:an official order from the pop with is lead seal, called a "bulla" attatched.
Which reformers were not criticized for their beliefs?
Reformers who avoided criticizing the fundamental teachings of the Church were left in peace.
Who was martin Luther?
A monk
What did Martin Luther do?
Nailed the 95 Theses to a church door
What was ML's famous list called?
95 theses
What did Luther believe about how people could be saved?
That iff a person had faith then that in itself was enough to be saved, that is, go to heaven.
Why did Pope Leo X publish a bull?
Because he disaproved of many of Luther's teachings.
What did the church threaten Luther with?
Excommunication, or removal from the church.
How did Luther respond to the bull?
He burned the bull in public.
What was his punishment for his action?
he was excomunicated and put on trial. Je just excaped execution.
What was vernacular?
:the language spoken by people in their homes.