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31 Cards in this Set

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Nicolaus Copernicus
hypothesis-heliocentric model of universe, first, rotations, published right before death
Tycho Brahe
observed heaven, got data
Johannes Kepler
mathemation who used Brache's data to provide math proof for hypotheses, ellipses (Protestant)
Galileo Galilei
(Catholic) recanted ideas on proving Copernican theory, moons around planets, laws of physics (inertia)
natural law
universal moral law that like physical laws could be understood through reason
thomas Hobbes
natural law pro-absolute monarchy. human beings naturally bad. Leviathan. social contract to agree to give up freedom and live obediently under a ruler. peaceful and orderly. no right to rebel even if its unujust
John Locke
natural law- social contract, people are reasonable and moral, natural rights. two treatises of gov't. go't to protect natural rights, best wehen limited, if failed to protect rights, can overthrow.
Madame de Pompadour
ran famous salon
Dens Diderot
wrote encyclopedie, everything known, criticized Church and gov't, yes religious tolerance, banned, imprisoned
Baron de Montesquieu
helped encyclopedie, the spirit of laws. wrote of existing gov'ts. admired English gov't and promoted separating powers in branches. natural rights.
voltaire
candide. mocked church and royalty. loved enlish gov't (religious liberty/freedom of press) free speech.
mary wollstonecraft
equal rights for women.
enlightened despots
leaders wanted to bring political/social change. liked enlightenment. limited power, so mroe likable ang generational. frederick II (no torture, schools, industry, agriculture) Catherine II (said but not did) Maria Theresa (humanitarian, schools, free serfs) Joseph II (no serfdom, equal land taxes, middle class officials, freedom of press, less church property for hospitals, religious freedom)
classicism
simple ancient spirit (architectures, scuptor, painters, writing, music, instruments)
Rousseau
beauty of simple nature, anti-enlightenment, emile-society corrupt. give up rights for general will-the social contract
Immanuel Kant
metaphysics- spiritual issues. critique of pure reason. seperate worlds.
John Weley
Methoidism- anti-predestination, only batism/communion, salvation from actions, reject resson, believe in emotion/romance
more religioon
hasidism
romanticism
cultural movement celebrating emotion/individual. end age of enlightenment
Elizabeth I
Honored parliament, limited monarchy
James I
divine right, parliament mad, money broke, spent much, sold titles. puritans against him when wanted them to reform. king james bible
charles I
anti-puritan. divine right. dissolved parliament many times for no money. forced loans or jail, troops in homes, martial law- limitations on individual rights, ignored petition of rigth, whipped puritans. long parliament because war w scotland and ireland
petition of right
no taxes/loans w.o permission, no imprison w.o cause, troops not in hom w.o permission, no martial law unless war
Cabaliers vs. Roundheds
king vs. puritan/parliament
oliver cromwell
military comander. religious freedom. military rule.
Charles II
limited monarchy. Merry Monarch.secretly catholic. yes petition of right. constitutional monarchy. magna carta.
James II
Catholic. absolute power. ignored religious laws. appointed catholics
habeas corpus
no prison w.o just trial
glorious revolution
mary II and william III took power w.o fight. bill of rights (need consent for taxs/army, often, individual rights) act of settlemtn (no catholic throned)
anne
cabinet
george I
prime minister