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910 Cards in this Set

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.bak
The file name extension of an auxiliary file, created either automatically or upon command, that contains the second-most-recent version of a file and that bears the same file name.
.dat
The generic file name extension of a data file.
.NET Framework
An integral Windows component that supports building, deploying, and running the next generation of applications and XML Web services. It provides a highly productive, standards-based, multilanguage environment for integrating existing investments with next generation applications and services, as well as the agility to solve the challenges of deployment and operation of Internet-scale applications. The .NET Framework consists of three main parts: the common language runtime, a hierarchical set of unified class libraries, and a componentized version of ASP called ASP.NET.
2PC
A protocol that ensures that transactions that apply to more than one server are completed on all servers or none at all. Two-phase commit is coordinated by the transaction manager and supported by resource managers.
access control list
In Windows-based systems, a list of access control entries (ACE) that apply to an entire object, a set of the object's properties, or an individual property of an object, and that define the access granted to one or more security principals.
accessibility
The quality of a system incorporating hardware or software to engage a flexible, customizable user interface, alternative input and output methods, and greater exposure of screen elements to make the computer usable by people with cognitive, hearing, physical, or visual disabilities.
accessor
A data structure or group of structures created by the consumer that describes how row or parameter data from the data store is to be laid out in the consumer's data buffer, enabling providers to optimize access. An accessor is a collection of bindings.
action
An end-user-initiated operation on a selected cube or portion of a cube.
activation
The process of starting a service program in response to a Service Broker message.
active statement
A SQL statement that has been run but whose result set has not yet been canceled or fully processed.
ActiveX Data Objects
A data access interface that communicates with OLE DB-compliant data sources to connect to, retrieve, manipulate, and update data.
ActiveX Data Objects (Multidimensional)
A high-level, language-independent set of object-based data access interfaces optimized for multidimensional data applications.
ActiveX Data Objects MultiDimensional.NET
A .NET managed data provider that provides access to multidimensional data sources, such as Microsoft SQL Server Analysis Services.
activity data
Data generated as part of a business transaction by executing an activity within an application. It is characterized by an exclusive write access pattern.
ad hoc reporting
A reporting system that enables end users to run queries and create custom reports without having to know the technicalities of the underlying database schema and query syntax.
adapter host
The root abstract class Adapter, which defines the handshake between the adapter and the StreamInsight server in the ENQUEUE interaction point. It provides all the required adapter services such as memory management, and exception handling.
add-in
A supplemental program that can extend the capabilities of an application program.
ADF
An XML file that fully describes a single Notification Services application. The ADF file contains the schemas for the events, subscriptions, and notifications; the rules for matching events with subscriptions; and may provide the name of the XSLT file used to format generated notifications.
adjective phrasing
A way of expressing a relationship in English in which an entity is described by an adjective.
ADO
A data access interface that communicates with OLE DB-compliant data sources to connect to, retrieve, manipulate, and update data.
ADO MD
A high-level, language-independent set of object-based data access interfaces optimized for multidimensional data applications.
ADOMD.NET
A .NET managed data provider that provides access to multidimensional data sources, such as Microsoft SQL Server Analysis Services.
adornment
A control or status area that is attached to the edge of a pane or window, such as a toolbar or ruler.
Agent XP
An option to enable extended stored procedures.
aggregate
A single value that is composed of multiple values.
aggregate
To combine multiple values.
aggregate
Pertaining to a combination of multiple values.
aggregate function
A function that performs a calculation on multiple values and returns a single value.
aggregate query
A query (SQL statement) that summarizes information from multiple rows by including an aggregate function such as Sum or Avg.
aggregate type
A data type composed of multiple elements. An aggregate can be homogeneous (all elements have the same type) e.g. an array, a list in a functional language, a string of characters, a file; or it can be heterogeneous (elements can have different types) e.g. a structure.
aggregation
A table or structure containing pre-calculated data for an online analytical processing (OLAP) cube. Aggregations support the rapid and efficient querying of a multidimensional database.
aggregation prefix
A string that is combined with a system-defined ID to create a unique name for a partition's aggregation table.
aggregation wrapper
A wrapper that encapsulates a COM object within another COM object.
alert
An audible or visual warning signal, generated by a computer, indicating that a threshold has been or is about to be breached.
alias
An alternative label for some object, such as a file or data collection.
alias type
A user-defined data type based on one of the SQL Server system data types that can specify a certain data type, length, and nullability.
alignment
A condition whereby an index is built on the same partition scheme as that of its corresponding table.
allocation unit
A set of pages that can be operated on as a whole. Pages belonging to an allocation unit are tracked by Index Allocation Map (IAM) pages. An allocation unit consists of the IAM page chain and all pages marked allocated in that IAM page chain. An allocation unit can contain at most a single IAM chain, and an IAM chain must belong to one, and only one, allocation unit.
AMO
A collection of .NET namespaces included with Analysis Services, used to provide administrative functionality for client applications.
Analysis Management Objects
A collection of .NET namespaces included with Analysis Services, used to provide administrative functionality for client applications.
Analysis Services
A feature of Microsoft SQL Server that supports online analytical processing (OLAP) and data mining for business intelligence applications. Analysis Services organizes data from a data warehouse into cubes with precalculated aggregation data to provide rapid answers to complex analytical queries.
analytical data
Data that provides the values that are associated with spatial data. For example, spatial data defines the locations of cities in an area whereas analytical data provides the population for each city.
ancestor
In a tree structure, the element of which a given element is a child. Equivalent to a parent element.
ancestor element
In a tree structure, the element of which a given element is a child. Equivalent to a parent element.
anchor cap
A line cap where the width of the cap is bigger than the width of the line.
anchor member
The first invocation of a recursive CTE consists of one or more CTE_query_definition joined by UNION ALL, UNION, EXCEPT or INTERSECT operators. Because these query definitions form the base result set of the CTE structure, they are referred to as anchor members.
animation manager
A core component of an animation application and the central programmatic interface for managing (creating, scheduling, and controlling) animations.
annotational property
A property that is maintained by Metadata Services as string data that can be attached to any repository object that exposes the IAnnotationalProps interface.
anonymous subscription
A type of pull subscription for which detailed information about the subscription and the Subscriber is not stored.
ANSI to OEM conversion
The conversion of characters that must occur when data is transferred from a database that stores character data using a specific code page to a client application on a computer that uses a different code page. Typically, Windows-based client computers use ANSI/ISO code pages, and some databases (for compatibility reasons) might use OEM code pages.
antialiasing
A software technique for smoothing the jagged appearance of curved or diagonal lines caused by poor resolution on a display screen. Methods of anti-aliasing include surrounding pixels with intermediate shades and manipulating the size and horizontal alignment of the pixels.
anti-aliasing
A software technique for smoothing the jagged appearance of curved or diagonal lines caused by poor resolution on a display screen. Methods of anti-aliasing include surrounding pixels with intermediate shades and manipulating the size and horizontal alignment of the pixels.
API
A set of routines that an application uses to request and carry out lower-level services performed by a computer's operating system. These routines usually carry out maintenance tasks such as managing files and displaying information.
API server cursor
A server cursor that is built to support the cursor functions of an API, such as ODBC, OLE DB, ADO, and DB-Library.
API support
A set of routines that an application uses to request and carry out lower-level services performed by a computer's operating system. These routines usually carry out maintenance tasks such as managing files and displaying information.
application database
The database that stores user and system data for one application. The application database contains the events, subscriptions, and notifications for the application. It also contains system metadata, including the schemas for the events, subscriptions, and notifications for the application; and the match rules for the application.
application definition file
An XML file that fully describes a single Notification Services application. The ADF file contains the schemas for the events, subscriptions, and notifications; the rules for matching events with subscriptions; and may provide the name of the XSLT file used to format generated notifications.
application program interface
A set of routines that an application uses to request and carry out lower-level services performed by a computer's operating system. These routines usually carry out maintenance tasks such as managing files and displaying information.
application programming interface
A set of routines that an application uses to request and carry out lower-level services performed by a computer's operating system. These routines usually carry out maintenance tasks such as managing files and displaying information.
application role
A SQL Server role created to support the security needs of an application.
application time
The clock time supplied by applications which must communicate their application time to the StreamInsight server so that all temporal operators refer to the timestamp of the events and never to the system clock of the host machine.
apply branch
The set of operations applied to an event group is called the apply branch.
arbitration port
A TCP/IP port used by the cache hosts to determine whether a cache host in the cluster has become unavailable. The port number that is used for arbitration can be different on each cache host.
ARIMA
A method for determining dependencies in observations taken sequentially in time, that also supports multiplicative seasonality.
arithmetic overflow
A condition that results from calculating a column value that exceeds the column's specified size.
article
A component in a publication. For example, a table, a column, or a row.
assembly
A managed application module containing class metadata and managed code as an object in SQL Server, against which CLR functions, stored procedures, triggers, user-defined aggregates, and user-defined types can be created in SQL Server.
associative array
An array composed of a collection of keys and a collection of values, where each key is associated with one value. The keys and values can be of any type.
atom feed
An XML structure that contains metadata about content, such as the language version and the date when the content was last modified, and is sent to subscribers by using the Atom Publishing Protocol (AtomPub).
atomic
Pertaining to an operation where all the transaction data modifications must be performed; either all of the transaction data modifications are performed or none are performed.
attribute
A single characteristic or additional piece of information (financial or non-financial) that exists in a database.
attribute hierarchy
A flat hierarchy (typically having an All level and a member level) containing a single attribute. It is created from one column in a dimension table, if supported by the cube.
attribute relationship
The hierarchy associated with an attribute containing a single level based on the corresponding column in a dimension table.
attribute type
The type of information contained by an attribute, such as quarters or months in a time dimension, which may enable specific treatment by the server and client applications.
auditing
The process an operating system uses to detect and record security-related events, such as an attempt to create, to access, or to delete objects such as files and directories. The records of such events are stored in a file known as a security log, whose contents are available only to those with the proper clearance.
authentication
The process of verifying the identity of a user, computer, process, or other entity by validating the credentials provided by the entity. Common forms of credentials are digital signatures, smart cards, biometric data, and a combination of user names and passwords.
authenticator
A data structure used by one party to prove that another party knows a secret key. In the Kerberos authentication protocol, authenticators include timestamps, to prevent replay attacks, and are encrypted with the session key issued by the Key Distribution Center (KDC).
authorization
The process of granting a person, computer process, or device access to certain information, services or functionality. Authorization is derived from the identity of the person, computer process, or device requesting access, which is verified through authentication.
autocommit mode
The default transaction management mode for the Database Engine. The Database Engine automatically starts a transaction for each individual Transact-SQL statement. When the statement completes, the transaction is committed or rolled back based on the success or failure of the statement.
auto-consistency check
A feature that automatically runs a consistency check on protected data sources when it detects an inconsistent replica.
automatic failover
In a database mirroring session, a failover initiated by the witness and mirror upon the failure of the principal server (if the database is in a synchronized state).
automatic recovery
Recovery that occurs every time SQL Server is restarted.
auto-protection
In DPM, a feature that automatically identifies and adds new data sources for protection.
autoregressive integrated moving average
A method for determining dependencies in observations taken sequentially in time, that also supports multiplicative seasonality.
axis
A set of tuples. Each tuple is a vector of members. A set of axes defines the coordinates of a multidimensional data set.
back up
To make a duplicate copy of a program, a disk, or data.
backing stream
The existing stream, that the new stream will be based on.
backup
A duplicate of a program, a disk, or data, made either for archiving purposes or for safeguarding files.
backup copy
A duplicate of a program, a disk, or data, made either for archiving purposes or for safeguarding files.
backup device
A tape or disk drive containing a backup medium.
backup file
A duplicate of a program, a disk, or data, made either for archiving purposes or for safeguarding files.
backup medium
Disk file or tape used to hold one or more backups.
backup set
A collection of files, folders, and other data that have been backed up and stored in a file or on one or more tapes.
balanced hierarchy
A dimension hierarchy in which all leaf nodes are the same distance from the root node.
base backup
A data backup of a database or files upon which a differential backup is fully or partially based. The base backup is the most recent full or file backup of the database or files.
base data type
Any system-supplied data type, for example, char , varchar , binary , and varbinary . User-defined data types are derived from base data types.
base object
The object that a synonym references.
base table
A table stored permanently in a database. Base tables are referenced by views, cursors, SQL statements, and stored procedures.
basic marker map
A map that displays a marker at each location (for example, cities) and varies marker color, size, and type.
batch
A set of requests or transactions that have been grouped together.
batch job
A set of computer processes that can be run without user interaction.
batch processing
The execution of a batch file.
batching
The process of sending changes in small groups instead of in a one-shot transfer of the data in its entirety.
BI Development Studio
A project development and management tool for business intelligence solution developers. It can be used to design end-to-end business intelligence solutions that integrate projects from Microsoft SQL Server Analysis Services (SSAS), Microsoft SQL Server Integration Services (SSIS), and Microsoft SQL Server Reporting Services (SSRS).
billion
In American usage (as is usual with microcomputers), a thousand million, or 109. Computer terminology uses the prefixes giga-for 1 billion and nano-for 1 billionth.
binary large object
A discrete packet of binary data that has an exceptionally large size, such as pictures or audio tracks stored as digital data, or any variable or table column large enough to hold such values. The designation "binary large object" typically refers to a packet of data that is stored in a database and is treated as a sequence of uninterpreted bytes.
binder
A tool/module that creates a binding/bindery.
binding
In Analysis Services, a defined relationship between an attribute or a measure and one or more underlying columns in a dimension or fact table.
bit pattern
A combination of bits, often used to indicate the possible unique combinations of a specific number of bits. For example, a 3-bit pattern allows 8 possible combinations and an 8-bit pattern allows 256 combinations.
bitwise operation
An operation that manipulates a single bit, or tests whether a bit is on or off.
blittable type
A data type that has a unique characteristic and an identical presentation in memory for both managed and unmanaged environments. It can be directly shared.
blob
A discrete packet of binary data that has an exceptionally large size, such as pictures or audio tracks stored as digital data, or any variable or table column large enough to hold such values. The designation "binary large object" typically refers to a packet of data that is stored in a database and is treated as a sequence of uninterpreted bytes.
BLOb
A discrete packet of binary data that has an exceptionally large size, such as pictures or audio tracks stored as digital data, or any variable or table column large enough to hold such values. The designation "binary large object" typically refers to a packet of data that is stored in a database and is treated as a sequence of uninterpreted bytes.
BLOB
A discrete packet of binary data that has an exceptionally large size, such as pictures or audio tracks stored as digital data, or any variable or table column large enough to hold such values. The designation "binary large object" typically refers to a packet of data that is stored in a database and is treated as a sequence of uninterpreted bytes.
block
A Transact-SQL statement enclosed by BEGIN and END.
block cursor
A cursor with a rowset size greater than 1.
blocking transaction
A transaction that causes another transaction to fail.
Boolean
Of, pertaining to, or characteristic of logical (true, false) values.
Boolean expression
An expression that yields a Boolean value (true or false). Such expressions can involve comparisons (testing values for equality or, for non-­Boolean values, the < [less than] or > [greater than] relation) and logical combination (using Boolean operators such as AND, OR, and XOR) of Boolean expressions.
Boolean operator
An operator designed to work with Boolean values. The four most common Boolean operators in programming use are AND (logical conjunction), OR (logical inclusion), XOR (exclusive OR), and NOT (logical negation).
bound stream
An event stream that contains all the information needed to produce events. Either the information is an already instantiated data source, or the information is sufficient for the StreamInsight server to start the data source.
bounding box
The smallest rectangular area that will surround a path, shape, or group of objects.
box plot chart
A statistical type of chart that uses boxes to indicate statistical distribution and easily identify outlier points. There are five values: upper quartile, lower quartile, High Box, Low Box, and Median.
breakpoint
A location in a program at which execution is halted so that a programmer can examine the program's status, the contents of variables, and so on.
browse button
A button that displays a dialog box to help users select a valid value.
browse mode
A function that lets you scan database rows and update their values one row at a time.
B-tree
A tree structure for storing database indexes.
bubble map
A geographical map that displays a circle over specific locations, where the radius of the circle is proportional to a numeric value.
buffer pool
A block of memory reserved for index and table data pages.
buffer size
The size of the area of memory reserved for temporary storage of data.
built-in functions
A group of predefined functions provided as part of the Transact-SQL and Multidimensional Expressions languages.
BUILTIN\Administrators
User account (local administrators)
bulk copy
An action of copying a large set of data.
bulk export
To copy a large set of data rows out of a SQL Server table into a data file.
bulk import
To load a large amount of data, usually in batches, from a data file or repository to another data repository.
bulk load
An action of inserting a large set of rows into a table.
bulk log backup
A backup that includes log and data pages changed by bulk operations. Point-in-time recovery is not allowed.
bulk rowset provider
A provider used for the OPENROWSET instruction to read data from a file. In SQL Server 2005, OPENROWSET can read from a data file without loading the data into a target table. This enables you to use OPENROWSET with a simple SELECT statement.
Bulk Smart Card Issuance Tool
A software program running on a client computer that a certificate manager can use to simultaneously issue multiple certificates.
bulk-logged recovery model
A database recovery mode that minimally logs bulk operations, such as index creation and bulk imports, while fully logging other transactions. Bulk-logged recovery increases performance for bulk operations, and is intended to be used an adjunct to the full recovery model.
Business Intelligence Development Studio
A project development and management tool for business intelligence solution developers. It can be used to design end-to-end business intelligence solutions that integrate projects from Microsoft SQL Server Analysis Services (SSAS), Microsoft SQL Server Integration Services (SSIS), and Microsoft SQL Server Reporting Services (SSRS).
business logic
The part of an application program that performs the required data processing of the business. It refers to the routines that perform the data entry, update, query and report processing, and more specifically to the processing that takes place behind the scenes rather than the presentation logic required to display the data on the screen.
business logic handler
A merge replication feature that allows you to run custom code during the synchronization process.
business logic handler framework
The business logic handler framework allows you to write a managed code assembly that is called during the merge synchronization process.
business rules
The logical rules that are used to run a business
cache aging
The mechanism of caching that determines when a cache row is outdated and must be refreshed.
cache client
A .NET application that uses the Windows Server AppFabric client APIs to communicate with and store data to a Windows Server AppFabric distributed cache system.
cache cluster
The instantiation of the distributed cache service, made up of one or more instances of the cache host service working together to store and distribute data. Data is stored in memory to minimize response times for data requests. This clustering technology differs from Windows Clustering.
cache invalidation
The process of flagging an object in the cache so that it will no longer be used by any cache clients. This occurs when an object remains in cache longer than the cache time-out value (when it expires).
cache item
An object that is stored in the cache and additional information associated with that object, such as tags and version. It can be extracted from the cache cluster using the GetCacheItem client API.
cache notification
An asynchronous notification that can be triggered by a variety of cache operations on the cache cluster. Cache notifications can be used to invoke application methods or automatically invalidate locally cached objects.
cache operation
An event that occurs on regions or cached items that can trigger a cache notification.
cache port
A TCP/IP port used by cache hosts to transmit data to and from the cache clients. The port number used for the cache port can be different on each cache host. These settings are maintained in the cluster configuration settings.
cache region
A container of data, within a cache, that co-locates all cached objects on a single cache host. Cache Regions enable the ability to search all cached objects in the region by using descriptive strings, called tags.
cache service
A process running the “Velocity” service, participating as a member of the cache cluster.
cache tag
One or more optional string-based identifiers that can be associated with each cached object stored in a region. Regions allow you to retrieve cached objects based on one or more tags.
cache-aside programming pattern
A programming pattern in which if the data is not present in the cache, the application, not the distributed cache system, must reload data into the cache from the original data source.
cache-enabled application
An application that uses the Windows Server AppFabric cache client to store data in cache on the cache cluster.
calculated column
A type of column that displays the results of mathematical or logical operations or expressions instead of stored data.
calculated column
A type of column that displays the results of mathematical or logical operations or expressions instead of stored data.
calculated field
A field defined in a query that displays the result of an expression rather than displaying stored data. The value is recalculated each time a value in the expression changes.
calculated member
A member of a dimension whose value is calculated at run time by using an expression. Calculated member values can be derived from the values of other members.
calculation condition
A Multidimensional Expressions (MDX) logical expression that is used to determine whether a calculation formula will be applied against a cell in a calculation subcube.
calculation formula
A Multidimensional Expressions (MDX) expression used to supply a value for cells in a calculation subcube, subject to the application of a calculation condition.
calculation pass
A stage of calculation in a multidimensional cube in which applicable calculations are evaluated.
calculation pass number
An ordinal position used to refer to a calculation pass.
calculation subcube
The set of multidimensional cube cells that is used to create a calculated cells definition. The set of cells is defined by a combination of MDX set expressions.
callback
The process used to authenticate users calling in to a network. During callback, the network validates the caller's username and password, hangs up, and then returns the call, usually to a preauthorized number. This process prevents unauthorized access to an account even if an individual's logon ID and password have been stolen.
call-level interface
The interface supported by ODBC for use by an application.
candidate key
A column or set of columns that have a unique value for each row in a table.
cap
For paths that contain unconnected ends, such as lines, the end of a stroke. You can change the way the stroke looks at each end by applying one of four end cap styles: flat cap, round cap, square cap, and triangle cap.
cardinality
The number of entities that can exist on each side of a relationship.
carousel view
In PowerPivot Gallery, a specialized view where the preview area is centered and the thumbnails that immediately precede and follow the current thumbnail are adjacent to the preview area.
cascading delete
For relationships that enforce referential integrity between tables, the deletion of all related records in the related table or tables when a record in the primary table is deleted.
cascading update
For relationships that enforce referential integrity between tables, the updating of all related records in the related table or tables when a record in the primary table is changed.
case
An abstract view of data characterized by attributes and relations to other cases.
case key
The element of a case by which the case is referenced within a case set.
catalog views
Built-in views that form the system catalog for SQL Server.
catastrophic error
An error that causes the system or a program to fail abruptly with no hope of recovery. An example of a fatal error is an uncaught exception that cannot be handled.
CD sleeve
A case for holding CDs.
CD-ROM
A form of storage characterized by high capacity (roughly 650 MB) and the use of laser optics instead of magnetic means for reading data.
cell
In a cube, the set of properties, including a value, specified by the intersection when one member is selected from each dimension.
cellset
In ADO MD, an object that contains a collection of cells selected from cubes or other cellsets by a multidimensional query.
centralized registration model
A registration model that removes all certificate subscriber participation from the management policy. For the workflow, a user designated as the originator will initiate the request and an enrollment agent will execute the request.
CEP
The continuous and incremental processing of event streams from multiple sources based on declarative query and pattern specifications with near-zero latency.
CEP engine
The core engine and adapter framework components of Microsoft StreamInsight. The StreamInsight server can be used to process and analyze the event streams associated with a complex event processing application.
CERN
A physics research center located in Geneva, Switzerland, where the original development of the World Wide Web took place under the leadership of Tim Berners-Lee in 1989 as a method to facilitate communication among members of the scientific community.
certificate
A digital document that is commonly used for authentication and to help secure information on a network. A certificate binds a public key to an entity that holds the corresponding private key. Certificates are digitally signed by the certification authority that issues them, and they can be issued for a user, a computer, or a service.
certificate enrollment
The process of requesting, receiving, and installing a certificate.
certificate issuer
The certification authority which issued the certificate to the subject.
Certificate Lifecycle Manager Client
A suite of Certificate Lifecycle Manager (CLM) client tools that assist end users with managing their smart cards. The tools include the Smart Card Self Service Control, the Smart Card Personalization Control, and the Certificate Profile Update Control. See Smart Card Self-Service Control, Smart Card Personalization Control, Certificate Profile Update Control.
certificate manager
A Certificate Lifecycle Manager (CLM) user that has the appropriate CLM permissions to either administer other CLM users or to administer the CLM application itself.
certificate manager Web portal
A Web application running on the Certificate Lifecycle Manager (CLM) server. This portal allows certificate administrators to administer other users’ certificates and smart cards. The certificate subscriber and certificate manager Web portals are both accessed through the same universal resource locator (URL); however, the content displayed is based on a user's roles and permissions.
Certificate Profile Update Control
An ActiveX control that automates the update of Certificate Lifecycle Manager (CLM) profiles on client computers.
certificate revocation
The process of revoking a digital certificate.
certificate subscriber
A user that needs certificates with our without smart cards. Certificate subscribers can access a small number of functions that can only be performed for the user’s own certificates.
certificate subscriber Web portal
A Web application running on the Certificate Lifecycle Manager (CLM) server. This component of the CLM server interacts directly with users in a self-service mode. The specific functionality is based upon Active Directory group memberships and permissions. The certificate subscriber and certificate manager Web portals are both accessed through the same universal resource locator (URL); however, the content displayed is based on a user's roles and permissions.
certificate template
A Windows construct that specifies the format and content of certificates based on their intended usage. When requesting a certificate from a Windows enterprise certification authority (CA), certificate requestors can select from a variety of certificate types that are based on certificate templates.
change applier
An object that performs conflict detection, conflict handling, and change application for a batch of changes.
change propagation
The process of applying changes from one replica to another.
change script
A text file that contains SQL statements for all changes made to a database, in the order in which they were made, during an editing session.
change unit
The minimal unit of change tracking in a store. In change propagation, only the units that are changed must be sent; whereas, in conflict detection, independent changes to the same unit are considered a conflict.
changing dimension
A dimension that has a flexible member structure, and is designed to support frequent changes to structure and data.
character encoding
A one-to-one mapping between a set of characters and a set of numbers.
character set
A grouping of alphabetic, numeric, and other characters that have some relationship in common. For example, the standard ASCII character set includes letters, numbers, symbols, and control codes that make up the ASCII coding scheme.
chart data region
A report item on a report layout that displays data in a graphical format.
checkpoint
An event in which the Database Engine writes dirty buffer pages to disk. Each checkpoint writes to disk all the pages that were dirty at the last checkpoint and still have not been written to disk.
checksum
A calculated value that is used to test data for the presence of errors that can occur when data is transmitted or when it is written to disk. The checksum is calculated for a given chunk of data by sequentially combining all the bytes of data with a series of arithmetic or logical operations. After the data is transmitted or stored, a new checksum is calculated in the same way using the (possibly faulty) transmitted or stored data. If the two checksums do not match, an error has occurred, and the data should be transmitted or stored again. Checksums cannot detect all errors, and they cannot be used to correct erroneous data.
child
In a tree structure, the relationship of a node to its immediate predecessor.
chronicle
A table that stores state information for a single application. An example is an event chronicle, which can store event data for use with scheduled subscriptions.
chunk
A specified  amount of data.
claims identity
A unique identifier that represents a specific user, application, computer, or other entity, enabling it to gain access to multiple resources, such as applications and network resources, without entering credentials multiple times. It also enables resources to validate requests from an entity.
clause
In Transact-SQL, a subunit of an SQL statement. A clause begins with a keyword.
clean shutdown
A system shutdown that occurs without errors.
clear text
Data in its unencrypted or decrypted form.
cleartext
Data in its unencrypted or decrypted form.
CLI
The interface supported by ODBC for use by an application.
clickstream analysis
Clickstream data are information that users generate as they move from page to page and click on items within a Web site, usually stored in log files. Web site designers can use clickstream data to improve users' experiences with a site.
clickthrough report
A report that displays related report model data when you click data within a rendered Report Builder report.
client
A service, application, or device that wants to integrate into the Microsoft Sync Framework architecture.
client
A computer or program that connects to or requests the services of another computer or program.
client code generation
The action of generating code for the client project based on operations and entities exposed in the middle tier. A RIA Services link must exist between the client and server projects.
client cursor
A cursor that is implemented on the client. The entire result set is first transferred to the client, and the client API software implements the cursor functionality from this cached result set.
client subscription
A subscription to a merge publication that uses the priority value of the Publisher for conflict detection and resolution.
client type
Information that determines how a cache client functions and impacts the performance of your application. There are two client types: a simple client type and a routing client type.
CLM Audit
A Certificate Lifecycle Manager (CLM) extended permission in Active Directory that allows the generation and display of CLM policy templates, defining management policies within a profile template, and generating CLM reports.
CLM credentials
User account information that can be used to authenticate a user to Certificate Lifecycle Manager (CLM). These credentials can be in the form of domain credentials or one-time passwords.
CLM Enroll
A Certificate Lifecycle Manager (CLM) extended permission in Active Directory that allows the initiation, running, or completion of an enrollment request.
CLM Enroll
A Certificate Lifecycle Manager (CLM) extended permission in Active Directory that allows the user to specify the workflow and the data to be collected while issuing certificates using a template. This extended permission only applies to profile templates.
CLM Enrollment Agent
A Certificate Lifecycle Manager (CLM) extended permission in Active Directory that allows a user or group to perform certificate requests on behalf of another user. The issued certificate’s subject will contain the target user’s name, rather than the requestor’s name.
CLM Recover
A Certificate Lifecycle Manager (CLM) extended permission in Active Directory that allows the initiation of encryption key recovery from the certification authority database.
CLM Renew
A Certificate Lifecycle Manager (CLM) extended permission in Active Directory that allows the initiation, running, or completion of an enrollment request. The renew request replaces a user’s certificate that is near its expiration date with a new certificate that has a new validity period.
CLM reports
Audit information pertaining to credential management activities within Certificate Lifecycle Manager (CLM).
CLM Request Enroll
A Certificate Lifecycle Manager (CLM) extended permission in Active Directory that allows the initiation, running, or completion of an enrollment request.
CLM Request Recover
A Certificate Lifecycle Manager (CLM) extended permission in Active Directory that allows the initiation of encryption key recovery from the certification authority database.
CLM Request Renew
A Certificate Lifecycle Manager (CLM) extended permission in Active Directory that allows the initiation, running, or completion of an enrollment request. The renew request replaces a user’s certificate that is near its expiration date with a new certificate that has a new validity period.
CLM Request Revoke
A Certificate Lifecycle Manager (CLM) extended permission in Active Directory that allows the revocation of a certificate before the expiration of the certificate’s validity period. An example of when this is necessary is if a user’s computer or smart card is compromised (stolen).
CLM Request Unblock Smart Card
A Certificate Lifecycle Manager (CLM) extended permission in Active Directory that enables a smart card’s User Personal Identification Number (PIN) to be reset, allowing access to the key material on a smart card and for that material to be re-established.
CLM Revoke
A Certificate Lifecycle Manager (CLM) extended permission in Active Directory that allows the revocation of a certificate before the expiration of the certificate’s validity period. An example of when this is necessary is if a user’s computer or smart card is compromised (stolen).
clock vector
A collection of clock vector elements that represents updates to a replica. Any change that occurs between 0 and the tick count is contained in the vector.
clock vector element
A pair of values, consisting of a replica key and a tick count, that represents a change to a replica.
CLR function
A function created against a SQL Server assembly whose implementation is defined in an assembly created in the .NET Framework common language runtime (CLR).
CLR stored procedure
A stored procedure created against a SQL Server assembly whose implementation is defined in an assembly created in the .NET Framework common language runtime (CLR).
CLR trigger
A trigger created against a SQL Server assembly whose implementation is defined in an assembly created in the .NET Framework common language runtime (CLR).
CLR user-defined type
A user-defined data type created against a SQL Server assembly whose implementation is defined in an assembly created in the .NET Framework common language runtime (CLR).
cluster configuration storage location
The shared location (or shared storage location) where cluster configuration information is persisted. It can be a shared file or a database.
cluster disk resource
A disk on a cluster storage device.
cluster node
An individual computer in a server cluster.
cluster port
A TCP/IP port used by the cache hosts to manage the cache cluster. The port number used for the cluster ports can be different on each cache host. These settings are maintained in the cluster configuration settings.
cluster repair
A repair operation in which all missing or corrupt files are replaced, all missing or corrupt registry keys are replaced and all missing or invalid configuration values are set to default values.
clustered index
An index in which the logical order of the key values determines the physical order of the corresponding rows in a table.
clustered server
A server that belongs to a server cluster.
clustering
A data mining technique that analyzes data to group records together according to their location within the multidimensional attribute space.
coarse-grained lock
A lock that applies to a large amount of code or data.
code access security
A mechanism provided by the common language runtime whereby managed code is granted permissions by security policy and these permissions are enforced, helping to limit the operations that the code will be allowed to perform.
code element
The minimum bit combination that can represent a unit of encoded text for processing or exchange.
code page
A table that relates the character codes (code point values) used by a program to keys on the keyboard or to characters on the display. This provides support for character sets and keyboard layouts for different countries or regions.
code point
The minimum bit combination that can represent a unit of encoded text for processing or exchange.
cold standby
A second data center that can provide availability within hours or days.
collation
A set of rules that determines how data is compared, ordered, and presented.
collection
An object that contains a set of related objects. An object's position in the collection can change whenever a change occurs in the collection; therefore, the position of any specific object in a collection may vary.
collection item
An instance of a collector type that is created with a specific set of input properties and collection frequency, and that is used to gather specific types of data.
collection mode
The frequency at which data is collected and uploaded to the management data warehouse.
collection set
A group of collection items with which a user can interact through the user interface.
collector type
A logical wrapper around the SQL Server Integration Services packages that provide the actual mechanism for collecting data and uploading it to the management data warehouse.
collocate
To select a partitioned table that contains related data and join with this table on the partitioning column.
collocation
A condition whereby partitioned tables and indexes are partitioned according to equivalent partition functions.
color range
The range of colors available to a display device.
color rule
A rule that applies to fill colors for polygons, lines, and markers that represent points or polygon center points.
color scale
A scale that displays the results of color rules only.
column
The area in each row of a database table that stores the data value for some attribute of the object modeled by the table.
column binding
The binding of an Analysis Services object to a column in a data source view.
column delimiter
A character which separates columns from each other in the CSV file being imported/exported.
column filter
A filter that restricts columns that are to be included as part of a snapshot, transactional, or merge publication.
Column Pattern Profile
A report containing a set of regular expressions that cover the specified percentage of values in a string column.
column set
An untyped XML representation that combines all the sparse columns of a table into a structured output.
column-level collation
Supporting multiple collations in a single instance.
column-level constraint
A constraint definition that is specified within a column definition when a table is created or altered.
columnstore index
Stores each column in a separate set of disk pages rather than storing multiple rows per page.
COM
An object-based programming model designed to promote software interoperability; it allows two or more applications or components to easily cooperate with one another, even if they were written by different vendors, at different times, in different programming languages, or if they are running on different computers running different operating systems.
command buffer
An area in memory in which commands entered by the user are kept. A command buffer can enable the user to repeat commands without retyping them completely, edit past commands to change some argument or correct a mistake, undo commands, or obtain a list of past commands.
command prompt
An interface between the operating system and the user in which the user types command language strings of text that are passed to the command interpreter for execution.
command relationship
Provides instructions to hardware based on natural-language questions or commands.
commit
An operation that saves all changes to databases, cubes, or dimensions made since the start of a transaction.
committed
Characteristic of a transaction that is logged and cannot be rolled back.
commodity channel index formula
A formula that calculates the mean deviation of the daily average price of a commodity from the moving average. A value above 100 indicates that the commodity is overbought, and a value below -100 indicates that the commodity is oversold.
comparator
A device for comparing two items to determine whether they are equal. In electronics, for example, a comparator is a circuit that compares two input voltages and indicates which is higher.
compilation error
An error which occurs while compiling an application. These compilation errors typically occur because syntax was entered incorrectly.
compile time
The amount of time required to perform a compilation of a program. Compile time can range from a fraction of a second to many hours, depending on the size and complexity of the program, the speed of the compiler, and the performance of the hardware.
complete database restore
A restore of a full database backup, the most recent differential database backup (if any), and the log backups (if any) taken since the full database backup.
complex event processing
The continuous and incremental processing of event streams from multiple sources based on declarative query and pattern specifications with near-zero latency.
Component Object Model
An object-based programming model designed to promote software interoperability; it allows two or more applications or components to easily cooperate with one another, even if they were written by different vendors, at different times, in different programming languages, or if they are running on different computers running different operating systems.
composable
Pertaining to the ability to form complex queries by using query components (objects or operators) as reusable building blocks. This is done by linking query components together or encapsulating query components within each other.
composed environment
A virtual environment that was created from virtual machines. Those virtual machines were created outside of Microsoft Test Manager and are already deployed on a host group.
composite index
An index that uses more than one column in a table to index data.
composite key
A key whose definition consists of two or more fields in a file, columns in a table, or attributes in a relation.
compositional hierarchy
A set of entities that are conceptually part of a hierarchy, such as a parent entity and a child entity. Data operations require that the entities be treated as a single unit.
computed column
A virtual column in a table whose value is computed at run time.
computed field
A value in a formatted notification that has been computed by using a Transact-SQL expression.
COM-structured storage file
A component object model (COM) compound file used by Data Transformation Services (DTS) to store the version history of a saved DTS package.
concatenation
The process of combining two or more character strings or expressions into a single character string or expression, or combining two or more binary strings or expressions into a single binary string or expression.
concurrency
A process that allows multiple users to access and change shared data at the same time. The Entity Framework implements an optimistic concurrency model.
concurrency conflict
A conflict that occurs when the same item or change unit is changed on two different replicas that are later synchronized.
concurrency model
A way in which an application can be designed to account for concurrent operations that use the same cached data. Windows Server AppFabric supports optimistic and pessimistic concurrency models.
concurrent operation
A computer operation in which two or more processes (programs) have access to the microprocessor's time and are therefore carried out nearly simultaneously. Because a microprocessor can work with much smaller units of time than people can perceive, concurrent processes appear to be occurring simultaneously but in reality are not.
conditional expression
An expression that yields a Boolean value (true or false). Such expressions can involve comparisons (testing values for equality or, for non-­Boolean values, the < [less than] or > [greater than] relation) and logical combination (using Boolean operators such as AND, OR, and XOR) of Boolean expressions.
conditional split
A restore of a full database backup, the most recent differential database backup (if any), and the log backups (if any) taken since the full database backup.
config file
A file that contains machine-readable operating specifications for a piece of hardware or software or that contains information on another file or on a specific user, such as the user's logon ID.
configuration
In reference to a single microcomputer, the sum of a system's internal and external components, including memory, disk drives, keyboard, video, and generally less critical add-on hardware, such as a mouse, modem, or printer. Software (the operating system and various device drivers), the user's choices established through configuration files such as the AUTOEXEC.BAT and CONFIG.SYS files on IBM PCs and compatibles, and sometimes hardware (switches and jumpers) are needed to "configure the configuration" to work correctly. Although system configuration can be changed, as by adding more memory or disk capacity, the basic structure of the system--its architecture--remains the same.
configuration file
A file that contains machine-readable operating specifications for a piece of hardware or software or that contains information on another file or on a specific user, such as the user's logon ID.
Configuration Tools
In SQL Server, a menu item which allows the user to enable, disable, start, or stop the features, services, and remote connectivity of the SQL Server installations.
conflict detection
The process of determining which operations were made by one replica without knowledge of the other, such as when two replicas make local updates to the same item.
conflict resolution method
The method that is used to determine which change is written to the store in the event of a conflict. Typical conflict resolution methods are as follows: last writer wins, source wins, destination wins, custom, or deferred. For custom resolution, the resolving application reads the conflict from the conflict log and selects a resolution. For deferred resolution, the conflict is logged together with the conflicting change data and the made-with knowledge of the change.
conflict resolver
A special mechanism which handles resolving of conflict situations.
Connection Director
A connectivity technology where applications based on different data access technologies (.NET or native Win32) can share the same connection information. Connection information can be centrally managed for such client applications.
connection manager
A logical representation of a run-time connection to a data source.
connection string
A series of semicolon-delimited arguments that define the location of a database and how to connect to it.
consistency unit
The minimal unit of data synchronization. Because all changes that have the same consistency unit are sent together, synchronization can never be interrupted with part of a consistency unit applied.
constant
A numeric or string value that is not calculated and, therefore, does not change.
constraint conflict
A conflict that violates constraints that are put on items or change units, such as the relationship of folders or the location of identically-named data within a file system.
constraint violation
A violation that occurs when the restriction criteria are not satisfied.
contained database
A SQL Server database that includes all of the user authentication, database settings, and metadata required to define and access the database, and has no configuration dependencies on the instance of the SQL Server Database Engine where the database is installed.
container
A control flow element that provides package structure.
content formatter
The part of the distributor that turns raw notification data into readable messages.
content key
The key used to both encrypt and decrypt protected content during publishing and consumption.
contention
On a network, competition among stations for the opportunity to use a communications line or network resource.
context switch
The changing of the identity against which permissions to execute statements or perform actions are checked.
continuation media
The series of removable backup media used after the initial medium becomes full, allowing continuation of the backup operation.
continuation tape
A tape that is used after the initial tape in a media family fills, allowing continuation of a media family.
contract
A Service Broker object that defines the message types that can be exchanged within a given conversation.
control flow
A group of connected control flow elements that perform tasks.
control-break report
A report that summarizes data in user-defined groups or breaks. A new group is triggered when different data is encountered.
control-of-flow language
Transact-SQL keywords that control the flow of execution of SQL statements and statement blocks in triggers, stored procedures, and batches.
conversation endpoint
The object which represents a party participating in the conversation.
conversation group
A group of related Service Broker conversations. Messages in the same conversation group can only be processed by one service program at a time.
conversation handle
An handle which uniquely defines a conversation.
coordinate system
In n-dimensional space, a set of n linearly independent vectors anchored to a point (called the origin). A group of coordinates specifies a point in space (or a vector from the origin) by indicating how far to travel along each vector to reach the point (or tip of the vector).
correlated subquery
A subquery that references a column in the outer statement. The inner query is run for each candidate row in the outer statement.
cost of goods sold
An accounting category used to sum the financial consequences of manufacturing products and carrying inventory.
count window
A window with a variable window size that moves along a timeline with each distinct event start time.
countersign
To sign a document already signed by the other party.
CPU busy
A SQL Server statistic that reports the time, in milliseconds, that the central processing unit (CPU) spent on SQL Server work.
crawl
The process of scanning content to compile and maintain an index.
credentials
Information that includes identification and proof of identification that is used to gain access to local and network resources. Examples of credentials are user names and passwords, smart cards, and certificates.
cross-database ownership chaining
An ownership chain that spans more than one database.
cross-validation
A method for evaluating the accuracy of a data mining model.
CTI event
A special punctuation event that indicates the completeness of the existing events.
cube
A set of data that is organized and summarized into a multidimensional structure that is defined by a set of dimensions and measures.
cube role
A collection of users and groups with the same access to a cube. A cube role is created when you assign a database role to a cube, and it applies only to that cube.
current time increment event
A special punctuation event that indicates the completeness of the existing events.
cursor
An entity that maps over a result set and establishes a position on a single row within the result set.
cursor degradation
The return of a different type of cursor than the user had declared.
cursor library
A part of the ODBC and DB-Library application programming interfaces (APIs) that implements client cursors
custom rollup
An aggregation calculation that is customized for a dimension level or member, and that overrides the aggregate functions of a cube's measures.
custom rule
In a role, a specification that limits the dimension members or cube cells that users in the role are permitted to access.
custom variable
A variable provided by package developers.
custom volume
A volume that is not in the DPM storage pool and is specified to store the replica and recovery points for a protection group member.
cyclic protection
A type of protection between two DPM servers where each server protects the data on the other.
DAC
A single unit of management that captures the SQL Server database and instance objects used by a client-server or 3-tier application.
DAC instance
A copy of a DAC deployed on an instance of the Database Engine. There can be multiple DAC instances on the same instance of the Database Engine.
DAC package
An XML manifest that contains all of the objects defined for the DAC; the package gets created when a developer builds a DAC project.
DAC package file
The XML file that is the container of a DAC package.
DAC placement policy
A PBM policy that comprises a set of conditions, which serve as prerequisites on the target instance of SQL Server where the DAC can be deployed.
DAC project
A Visual Studio project used by database developers to create and develop a DAC. DAC projects get full support from Visual Studio and VSTS source code control, versioning, and development project management.
data adapter
An object used to submit data to and retrieve data from databases, Web services, and Extensible Markup Language (XML) files.
data backup
Any backup that includes the full image of one or more data files.
data binning
The process of grouping data into specific bins or groups according to defined criteria.
data block
In text, ntext, and image data, a data block is the unit of data transferred at one time between an application and an instance of SQL Server. The term is also applied to the units of storage for these data types.
data co-location
In DPM, a feature that enables protection of multiple data sources on a single volume or on the same tape. This allows you to store more data on each volume or tape.
data connection
A connection that specifies the name, type, location, and, optionally, other information about a database file or server.
Data Control Language
The subset of SQL statements used to control permissions on database objects.
data convergence
Data at the Publisher and the Subscriber that matches.
data corruption
A process wherein data in memory or on disk is unintentionally changed, with its meaning thereby altered or obliterated.
data definition
The attributes, properties, and objects in a database.
data definition language
A language that defines all attributes and properties of a database, especially record layouts, field definitions, key fields, file locations, and storage strategy.
data description language
A language that defines all attributes and properties of a database, especially record layouts, field definitions, key fields, file locations, and storage strategy.
data dictionary
A database containing data about all the databases in a database system. Data dictionaries store all the various schema and file specifications and their locations. They also contain information about which programs use which data and which users are interested in which reports.
data element
A single unit of data.
data explosion
The exponential growth in size of a multidimensional structure, such as a cube, due to the storage of aggregated data.
data extension
A plug-in that processes data for a specific kind of data source. For example, Microsoft OLE DB Provider for DB2.
data feed
An XML data stream in Atom 1.0 format.
data flow
The movement of data through a group of connected elements that extract, transform, and load data.
data flow component
A component of SQL Server 2005 Integration Services that manipulates data.
data flow engine
An engine that executes the data flow in a package.
data flow task
The task that encapsulates the data flow engine that moves data between sources and destinations, providing the facility to transform, clean, and modify data as it is moved.
data flow task
The task that encapsulates the data flow engine that moves data between sources and destinations, providing the facility to transform, clean, and modify data as it is moved.
data integrity
The accuracy of data and its conformity to its expected value, especially after being transmitted or processed.
data manipulation language
The subset of SQL statements that is used to retrieve and manipulate data. DML statements typically start with SELECT INSERT UPDATE or DELETE.
data mart
A subset of the contents of a data warehouse that tends to contain data focused at the department level, or on a specific business area.
data member
A child member associated with a parent member in a parent-child hierarchy. A data member contains the data value for its parent member, rather than the aggregated value for the parent's children.
data mining
The process of identifying commercially useful patterns or relationships in databases or other computer repositories through the use of advanced statistical tools.
data mining extension
In Analysis Services, a statement that performs mining tasks programmatically.
data mining model training
The process a data mining model uses to estimate model parameters by evaluating a set of known and predictable data.
data processing extension
A plug-in that processes data for a specific kind of data source (similar to a database driver).
Data Processor component
A component of the report server engine that processes data.
Data Profile Viewer
A stand-alone utility that displays the profile output in both summary and detail format with optional drilldown capability.
data provider
A known data source specific to a target type that provides data to a collector type.
data pump
A component used in SQL Server 2000 Transformation Services (DTS) to import, export, and transform data between heterogeneous data stores.
data region
A report item that provides data manipulation and display functionality for iterative data from an underlying dataset.
data scrubbing
The process of building a data warehouse out of data coming from multiple online transaction processing (OLTP) systems.
data segment
The portion of memory or auxiliary storage that contains the data used by a program.
data set
A collection of related information made up of separate elements that can be treated as a unit in data handling.
data source view
A named selection of database objects--such as tables, views, relationships, and stored procedures, based on one or more data sources--that defines the schema referenced by OLAP and data mining objects in an Analysis Services databases. It can also be used to define sources, destinations, and lookup tables for DTS tasks, transformations, and data adapters.
data steward
The person responsible for maintaining a data element in a metadata registry.
data viewer
A graphical tool that displays data as it moves between two data flow components at run time.
data warehouse
A database specifically structured for query and analysis. A data warehouse typically contains data representing the business history of an organization.
Data Warehouse
A database specifically structured for query and analysis. A data warehouse typically contains data representing the business history of an organization.
database administrator
The person who manages a database. The administrator determines the content, internal structure, and access strategy for a database, defines security and integrity, and monitors performance.
database catalog
The part of a database that contains the definition of all the objects in the database, as well as the definition of the database.
database diagram
A graphical representation of any portion of a database schema. It can be either a whole or partial picture of the structure of the database. It includes tables, the columns they contain, and the relationships between the tables.
database engine
The program module or modules that provide access to a database management system (DBMS).
Database Engine Tuning Advisor
A tool for tuning the physical database design that helps users to select and create an optimal set of indexes, indexed views, and partitioning.
Database Explorer
A simple database administration tool that lets the user perform database operations such as creating new tables, querying and modifying existing data, and other database development functions.
database file
One of the physical files that make up a database.
database language
The language used for accessing, querying, updating, and managing data in relational database systems.
database management system
A layer of software between the physical database and the user. The DBMS manages all access to the database.
database manager
A layer of software between the physical database and the user. The DBMS manages all access to the database.
database mirroring
Immediately reproducing every update to a read-write database (the principal database) onto a read-only mirror of that database (the mirror database) residing on a separate instance of the database engine (the mirror server). In production environments, the mirror server is on another machine. The mirror database is created by restoring a full backup of the principal database (without recovery).
Database Mirroring Monitor
A tool used to monitor any subset of the mirrored databases on a server instance.
database mirroring partner
One in a pair of server instances that act as role-switching partners for a mirrored database.
database mirroring partners
A pair of server instances that act as role-switching partners for a mirrored database.
database project
A collection of one or more data connections (a database and the information needed to access that database).
database reference
A path, expression or filename that resolves to a database.
database role
A collection of users and groups with the same access to an Analysis Services database.
database schema
The names of tables, fields, data types, and primary and foreign keys of a database.
database script
A collection of statements used to create database objects.
database snapshot
A read-only, static view of a database at the moment of snapshot creation.
database structure
The names of tables, fields, data types, and primary and foreign keys of a database.
Database view
A read-only, static snapshot of a source database at the moment of the view's creation.
data-definition query
An SQL-specific query that contains data definition language (DDL) statements. These statements allow you to create or alter objects in the database.
data-driven subscription
A subscription that takes generated output for subscription values (for example, a list of employee e-mail addresses).
datareader
A stream of data that is returned by an ADO.NET query.
data-tier application
A single unit of management that captures the SQL Server database and instance objects used by a client-server or 3-tier application.
data-tier application instance
A copy of a DAC deployed on an instance of the Database Engine. There can be multiple DAC instances on the same instance of the Database Engine.
data-tier application package
An XML manifest that contains all of the objects defined for the DAC; the package gets created when a developer builds a DAC project.
date
A SQL Server system data type that stores a date value from January 1, 1 A.D., through December 31, 9999
DB
A collection of data formatted/arranged to allow for easy search and retrieval.
DBCS
A character set that can use more than one byte to represent a single character. A DBCS includes some characters that consist of 1 byte and some characters that consist of 2 bytes. Languages such as Chinese, Japanese, and Korean use DBCS.
DBMS
A layer of software between the physical database and the user. The DBMS manages all access to the database.
DDL
A language that defines all attributes and properties of a database, especially record layouts, field definitions, key fields, file locations, and storage strategy.
DDL trigger
A special kind of trigger that executes in response to Data Definition Language (DDL) statements.
deadlock
A situation when two users, each having a lock on one piece of data, attempt to acquire a lock on the other's piece.
decision support
Systems designed to support the complex analytic analysis required to discover business trends.
decision tree
A treelike model of data produced by certain data mining methods. Decision trees can be used for prediction.
declaration
A binding of an identifier to the information that relates to it. For example, to make a declaration of a constant means to bind the name of the constant with its value. Declaration usually occurs in a program's source code; the actual binding can take place at compile time or run time.
Declarative Management Framework
A policy based system of SQL Server management.
Declarative Management Framework Facet
A set of logical pre-defined properties that model the behavior or characteristics for certain types of managed targets (such as a database, table, login, view,etc) in policy-based management.
declarative referential integrity
FOREIGN KEY constraints defined as part of a table definition that enforce proper relationships between tables.
dedicated administrator connection
A dedicated connection that allows an administrator to connect to a server when the Database Engine will not respond to regular connections.
default
A value that is automatically used by a program when the user does not specify an alternative. Defaults are built into a program when a value or option must be assumed for the program to function.
default database
The database the user is connected to immediately after logging in to SQL Server.
default instance
The instance of SQL Server that uses the same name as the computer name on which it is installed.
default language
The human language that SQL Server uses for errors and messages if a user does not specify a language.
default member
The dimension member used in a query when no member is specified for the dimension.
default result set
The default mode that SQL Server uses to return a result set back to a client.
defection
The removal of a server from multiserver operations.
deferred transaction
A transaction that is not committed when the roll forward phase of recovery completes and that cannot be rolled back during database startup because data needed by roll back is offline. This data can reside in either a page or a file.
degenerate dimension
A relationship between a dimension and a measure group in which the dimension main table is the same as the measure group table.
DEK
A bit string that is used in conjunction with an encryption algorithm to encrypt and decrypt data.
delegated registration model
A registration model in which a person other than the certificate subscriber initiates the certificate transaction. The certificate subscriber then completes the transaction by providing a supplied one-time password.
DELETE clause
A part of a DML Statement that contains the DELETE keyword and associated parameters.
delete level
In Data Transformation Services, the amount and kind of data to remove from a data warehouse.
delimited identifier
An object in a database that requires the use of special characters (delimiters) because the object name does not comply with the formatting rules of regular identifiers.
delivery channel
A pipeline between a distributor and a delivery service.
delivery channel type
The protocol for a delivery channel, such as Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) or File.
delivery extension
A plug-in that delivers reports to a specific target (for example, e-mail delivery).
delivery protocol
The set of communication rules used to route notification messages to external delivery systems.
denormalize
To introduce redundancy into a table to incorporate data from a related table.
deploy
To build a DAC instance, either directly from a DAC package or from a DAC previously imported to the SQL Server Utility.
deployed environment
A group of virtual machines located on a team project host group and controlled by Microsoft Test Manager. A deployed environment can be running or stopped.
dequeue
To remove from a queue.
derived column
A transformation that creates new column values by applying expressions to transformation input columns.
deserialization
The process of converting an object from a serial storage format to binary format in the form of an object that applications can use. This happens when the object is retrieved from the cache cluster with the Get client APIs.
destination
The SSIS data flow component that loads data into data stores or creates in-memory datasets.
destination
A synchronization provider that provide its current knowledge, accept a list of changes from the source provider, detect any conflicts between that list and its own items, and apply changes to its data store.
destination adapter
A data flow component that loads data into a data store.
destination provider
A synchronization provider that provide its current knowledge, accept a list of changes from the source provider, detect any conflicts between that list and its own items, and apply changes to its data store.
detect
To find something.
device type
A value from a developer-defined list that specifies the types of devices that a given application will support.
diacritic
A mark placed over, under, or through a character, usually to indicate a change in phonetic value from the unmarked state.
diacritical mark
A mark placed over, under, or through a character, usually to indicate a change in phonetic value from the unmarked state.
dialect
The syntax and general rules used to parse a string or a query statement.
diamond-shape relationship
A chain of attribute relationships that splits and rejoins but that contains no redundant relationships. For example, Day->Month->Year and Day->Quarter->Year have the same start and end points, but do not have any common relationships.
differencer
Creates a differencer of the DifferencingService object.
differential backup
A backup containing only changes made to the database since the preceding data backup on which the differential backup is based.
differential base
The most recent full backup of all the data in a database or in a subset of the files or filegroups of a database.
digest delivery
A method of sending notifications that combines multiple notifications within a batch and sends the resulting message to a subscriber.
digital certificate
A digital document that is commonly used for authentication and to help secure information on a network. A certificate binds a public key to an entity that holds the corresponding private key. Certificates are digitally signed by the certification authority that issues them, and they can be issued for a user, a computer, or a service.
dimension
A structural attribute of a cube that organizes data into levels. For example, a Geography dimension might include the members Country, Region, State or Province, and City.
dimension expression
A valid Multidimensional Expressions (MDX) expression that returns a dimension.
dimension granularity
The lowest level available to a particular dimension in relation to a particular measure group. The "natural" or physical grain is always that of the key that joins the main dimension table to the primary fact table.
dimension hierarchy
A logical tree structure that organizes the members of a dimension such that each member has one parent member and zero or more child members.
dimension level
The name of a set of members in a dimension hierarchy such that all members of the set are at the same distance from the root of the hierarchy. For example, a time hierarchy may contain the levels Year, Month, and Day.
dimension member
A single position or item in a dimension. Dimension members can be user-defined or predefined and can have properties associated with them.
dimension member property
A characteristic of a dimension member. Dimension member properties can be alphanumeric, Boolean, or Date/Time data types, and can be user-defined or predefined.
dimension table
A table in a data warehouse whose entries describe data in a fact table.
direct connect
The state of being connected to a back-end database, so that any changes you make to a database diagram automatically update your database when you save the diagram or selected items in it.
direct response mode
The default mode in which SQL Server statistics are gathered separately from the SQL Server Statistics display.
dirty page
A buffer page that contains modifications that have not been written to disk.
dirty read
A read that contains uncommitted data.
disabled index
Any index that has been marked as disabled. A disabled index is unavailable for use by the database engine. The index definition of a disabled index remains in the system catalog with no underlying index data.
discrete signal
A time series consisting of a sequence of quantities, that is a time series that is a function over a domain of discrete integers.
discretize
To put values of a continuous set of data into groups so that there are a discrete number of possible states.
discretized column
A column that represents finite, counted data
distinct count measure
A measure commonly used to determine for each member of a dimension how many distinct, lowest-level members of another dimension share rows in the fact table.
distributed partitioned view
A view that joins horizontally partitioned data from a set of member tables across more than one server, making the data appear as if from one table.
distributed query
A single query that accesses data from multiple data sources.
distributed transaction
A transaction that spans multiple data sources.
distribution cleanup agent
A scheduled job that runs under SQL Server Agent. After all Subscribers have received a transaction, the agent removes the transaction from the distribution database. It also cleans up snapshot files from the file system after entries corresponding to those files have been removed from the distribution database.
distribution database
A database on the Distributor that stores data for replication including transactions, snapshot jobs, synchronization status, and replication history information.
distribution retention period
In transactional replication, the amount of time transactions are stored in the distribution database.
distributor
A database instance that acts as a store for replication-specific data associated with one or more Publishers.
DMF
One of a set of built-in functions that returns server state information about values, objects, and settings in SQL Server.
DML
The subset of SQL statements that is used to retrieve and manipulate data. DML statements typically start with SELECT INSERT UPDATE or DELETE.
DML trigger
A stored procedure that executes when data in a specified table is modified.
DMV
A set of built-in views that return server state information about values, objects, and settings in SQL Server.
DMX
In Analysis Services, a statement that performs mining tasks programmatically.
domain
The set of possible values that you can specify for an independent variable in a function, or for a database attribute.
domain
A collection of computers in a networked environment that share a common database, directory database, or tree. A domain is administered as a unit with common rules and procedures, which can include security policies, and each domain has a unique name.
domain context
A client-side representation of a domain service.
domain integrity
The validity of entries for a specific column of data.
domain operation
A method on a domain service that is exposed to a client application. It enables client applications to perform an action on the entity such as, query, update, insert, or delete records.
domain service
A service that encapsulates the business logic of an application. It exposes a set of related domain operations in a service layer.
dormant session
Session in pre-login state. Sessions can be initiated or ended to modify their state, but they generally remain in either a "sleep/idle" state, such as when the session has been initiated and is open at the server for client use; or a "dormant" state, such as when the session has been ended and the session is not currently available at the server for client use.
double byte character set
A character set that can use more than one byte to represent a single character. A DBCS includes some characters that consist of 1 byte and some characters that consist of 2 bytes. Languages such as Chinese, Japanese, and Korean use DBCS.
double-byte character set
A character set that can use more than one byte to represent a single character. A DBCS includes some characters that consist of 1 byte and some characters that consist of 2 bytes. Languages such as Chinese, Japanese, and Korean use DBCS.
down
Not functioning, in reference to computers, printers, communications lines on networks, and other such hardware.
download-only article
An article in a merge publication that can be updated only at the Publisher or at a Subscriber that uses a server subscription.
DPM Client
The Data Protection Manager (DPM) Client enables the user to protect and recover their data as per the company protection policy configured by their backup administrator.
DPM engine
A policy-driven engine that DPM uses to protect and recover data.
DPM Management Shell
The command shell, based on Windows PowerShell (Powershell.exe), that makes available the cmdlets that perform functions in Data Protection Manager.
DPM Online
A feature that provides an online remote backup, both for securely storing data offsite for long durations and for disaster recovery (DR).
DPM Online account
A user account that DPM uses to start the DPM Online service.
DPM Online cache
A cache volume required by DPM Online on which the DPM server stores information for faster backup and recovery from DPM Online.
DPM Online protection
The process of using DPM online to protect data from loss or corruption by creating and maintaining replicas and recovery points of the data online.
DPM Online protection group
A collection of data sources that share the same DPM Online protection configuration.
DPM Online recovery
The process by which an administrator recovers previous versions of protected data from online recovery points on an internet-connected DPM server.
DPM Online recovery point
The date and time of a previous version of a data source that is available from DPM Online.
DPM Online replica
A complete copy of an online-protected data source on DPM Online. Each member of an online protection group on the DPM server is associated with a DPM Online replica.
DPM role
The grouping of users, objects, and permissions that is used by DPM administrators to manage DPM features that are used by end users.
DPM Self-Service Recovery Configuration Tool
A tool that enables DPM administrators to authorize end users to perform self-service recovery of data by creating and managing DPM roles (grouping of users, objects, and permissions).
DPM Self-Service Recovery Tool
A tool that is used by end users to recover backups from DPM, without any action required from the DPM administrator.
DPM Self-Service Tool for SQL Server
A tool for SQL Server that enables backup administrators to authorize end users to recover backups of SQL Server databases from DPM, without further action from the backup administrator.
DPM SRT
Software provided with DPM to facilitate a Windows Server 2003 bare metal recovery for the DPM server and the computers that DPM protects.
DPM SST for SQL Server
A tool for SQL Server that enables backup administrators to authorize end users to recover backups of SQL Server databases from DPM, without further action from the backup administrator.
DPM System Recovery Tool
Software provided with DPM to facilitate a Windows Server 2003 bare metal recovery for the DPM server and the computers that DPM protects.
DQS knowledge base
A repository of metadata that is used by Data Quality Services to improve the quality of data. This metadata is created either by the user interactively or by the Data Quality Services platform in an automated knowledge discovery process.
drillthrough
In Analysis Services, a technique to retrieve the detailed data from which the data in a cube cell was summarized.
drill-through report
A secondary report that is displayed when a user clicks an item in a report. Detailed data is displayed in the same report.
drop-down list
A list that can be opened to reveal all choices for a given field.
DSN
The collection of information used to connect an application to a particular ODBC database.
DSN-less connection
A type of data connection that is created based on information in a data source name (DSN), but is stored as part of a project or application.
dump
A duplicate of a program, a disk, or data, made either for archiving purposes or for safeguarding files.
dump device
A tape or disk drive containing a backup medium.
dynamic cursor
A cursor that can reflect data modifications made to the underlying data while the cursor is open.
dynamic filter
A row filter available with merge replication that allows you to restrict the data replicated to a Subscriber based on a system function or user-defined function (for example: SUSER_SNAME()).
dynamic locking
The process used by SQL Server to determine the most cost-effective locks to use at any one time.
dynamic management function
One of a set of built-in functions that returns server state information about values, objects, and settings in SQL Server.
dynamic management view
A set of built-in views that return server state information about values, objects, and settings in SQL Server.
dynamic recovery
The process that detects and/or attempts to correct software failure or loss of data integrity within a relational database management system (RDBMS).
dynamic routing
Routing that adjusts automatically to the current conditions of a network. Dynamic routing typically uses one of several dynamic-routing protocols such as Routing Information Protocol (RIP) and Border Gateway Protocol (BGP). Compare static routing.
dynamic snapshot
In merge replication, a snapshot that includes only the data from a single partition.
eager loading
A pattern of loading where a specific set of related objects are loaded along with the objects that were explicitly requested in the query.
edge event
An event whose event payload is valid for a given interval; however, only the start time is known upon arrival to the CEP server. The valid end time of the event is provided later in a separate edge event.
effective policy
The set of enabled policies for a target.
e-mail
The exchange of text messages and computer files over a communications network, such as a local area network or the Internet.
encryption
The process of converting readable data (plaintext) into a coded form (ciphertext) to prevent it from being read by an unauthorized party.
encryption key
A bit string that is used in conjunction with an encryption algorithm to encrypt and decrypt data.
end cap
For paths that contain unconnected ends, such as lines, the end of a stroke. You can change the way the stroke looks at each end by applying one of four end cap styles: flat cap, round cap, square cap, and triangle cap.
endpoint
A synchronization provider and its associated replica.
endpoint mapper
A service on a remote procedure call (RPC) server that maintains a database of dynamic endpoints and allows clients to map an interface/object UUID pair to a local dynamic endpoint.
enqueue
To place (an item) in a queue.
enroll
To add an instance of SQL Server to the set of SQL Server instances managed by a utility control point.
enrollment
The process of requesting, receiving, and installing a certificate.
Enrollment Agent
A user account used to request smart card certificates on behalf of another user account. A specific certificate template is applied to an Enrollment Agent.
enterprise license
A license that authorizes protection of both file and application resources on a single computer.
entity
In Reporting Services, an entity is a logical collection of model items, including source fields, roles, folders, and expressions, presented in familiar business terms.
entity integrity
A state in which every row of every table can be uniquely identified.
envelopes formula
A financial formula that calculates "envelopes" above and below a moving average using a specified percentage as the shift. The envelopes indicator is used to create signals for buying and selling. You can specify the percentage the formula uses to calculate the envelopes.
equijoin
A join in which the values in the columns being joined are compared for equality, and all columns are included in the results.
equirectangular projection
In a map report item, a very simple equidistant cylindrical projection in which the horizontal coordinate is the longitude and the vertical coordinate is the latitude.
error handling
The process of dealing with errors (or exceptions) as they arise during the running of a program. Some programming languages, such as C++, Ada, and Eiffel, have features that aid in error handling.
error log
A file that lists errors that were encountered during an operation.
error state number
A number associated with SQL Server messages that helps Microsoft support engineers find the specific code location that issued the message.
ETL
The act of extracting data from various sources, transforming data to consistent types, and loading the transformed data for use by applications.
ETW-based log sink
A means of capturing trace events on the cache client or cache host with the Event Tracing for Windows (ETW) framework inside Windows.
event
The basic unit of data processed by the StreamInsight server. Each event contains a header that defines the event kind and the temporal properties of the event. An event (except the CTI event) typically contains an event payload, which is a .NET data structure that contains the data associated with the event.
event
Any significant occurrence in the system or an application that requires a user to be notified or an entry to be added to a log.
event category
In SQL Trace, a grouping of similar and logically related event classes.
event chronicle
A table that stores event state information.
event chronicle rule
One or more Transact-SQL statements that manage the data in the event chronicle.
event class
In SQL Trace, a collection of properties that define an event.
event classification
A means of differentiating types of events that occur on the cache client and cache host. The Windows Server AppFabric log sinks follow the classification established with the System.Diagnostics.TraceLevel enumeration.
event collection stored procedures
System-generated stored procedures that an application can call to submit events to the event table in the application database.
event handler
A software routine that executes in response to an event.
event header
The portion of an event that defines the temporal properties of the event and the event kind. Temporal properties include a valid start time and end time associated with the event.
event kind
Event metadata that defines the event type.
event model
The event metadata that defines the temporal characteristics (shape) of the event.
event notification
A special kind of trigger that sends information about database events to a service broker.
event payload
The data portion of an event in which the data fields are defined as CLR (common language runtime) types. An event payload is a typed structure.
event provider
A provider that monitors a source of events and notifies the event table when events occur.
event source
The point of origin of an event.
event table
A table in the application database that stores event data.
Event Tracing for Windows (ETW)-based log sink
A means of capturing trace events on the cache client or cache host with the Event Tracing for Windows (ETW) framework inside Windows.
Everyone
A type of user account.
eviction
The physical removal of a cached object from the memory of the cache host or hosts that it is stored on. This is typically done to keep the memory usage of the cache host service in check.
exclusive lock
A lock that prevents any other transaction from acquiring a lock on a resource until the original lock on the resource is released at the end of the transaction.
execute
To perform an instruction.
execution tree
The path of data in the data flow of a SQL Server 2005 Integration Services package from sources through transformations to destinations.
exit module
A Certificate Services component that performs post-processing after a certificate is issued, such as the publication of an issued certificate to Active Directory.
expiration
The point at which an object has exceeded the cache time-out value. When an object expires, it is evicted.
explicit cap
An explicit hierarchy used as the top level of a derived hierarchy structure.
explicit hierarchy
In Master Data Services, a hierarchy that uses consolidated members to group other consolidated and leaf members.
explicit loading
A pattern of loading where related objects are not loaded until explicitly requested by using the Load method on a navigation property.
explicit transaction
A group of SQL statements enclosed within transaction delimiters that define both the start and end of the transaction.
exploded pie
A pie chart that displays the contribution of each value to a total while emphasizing individual values, by showing each slice of the pie as "pulled out," or separate, from the whole.
exploded pie chart
A pie chart that displays the contribution of each value to a total while emphasizing individual values, by showing each slice of the pie as "pulled out," or separate, from the whole.
exponential moving average
A moving average of data that gives more weight to the more recent data in the period and less weight to the older data in the period. The formula applies weighting factors which decrease exponentially. The weighting for each older data point decreases exponentially, giving much more importance to recent observations while still not discarding older observations entirely.
export format
UI text for subscriptions and HTML viewer. Corresponds to rendering extensions.
expression
Any combination of operators, constants, literal values, functions, and names of fields (columns), controls, and properties that evaluates to a single value.
expression host assembly
All expressions found within a report are that are compiled into an assembly. The expression host assembly is stored as a part of the compiled report.
extended permission
A permission that is specific to an object added to the standard Active Directory object schema. The permission associated with the new object extends the existing default permission set.
Extended property
User-defined text (descriptive or instructional including input masks and formatting rules) specific to a database or database object. The text is stored in the database as a property of the database or object.
Extended Protection for Authentication
A security feature that helps protect against man-in-the-middle (MITM) attacks.
extended stored procedure
A function in a dynamic link library (DLL) that is coded using the SQL Server Extended Stored Procedure API. The function can then be invoked from Transact-SQL using the same statements that are used to execute Transact-SQL stored procedures.
Extensible Stylesheet Language
An XML vocabulary that is used to transform XML data to another form, such as HTML, by means of a style sheet that defines presentation rules.
Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformation
A declarative, XML-based language that is used to present or transform XML data.
Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations
A declarative, XML-based language that is used to present or transform XML data.
extent
On a disk or other direct-access storage device, a continuous block of storage space reserved by the operating system for a particular file or program.
external delivery system
A system, such as Microsoft Exchange Server, that delivers formatted notifications to destination devices.
extract
To build a DAC package file that contains the definitions of all the objects in an existing database, as well as instance objects that are associated with the database.
extraction, transformation, and loading
The act of extracting data from various sources, transforming data to consistent types, and loading the transformed data for use by applications.
facet
A set of logical pre-defined properties that model the behavior or characteristics for certain types of managed targets (such as a database, table, login, view,etc) in policy-based management.
Facet
A set of logical pre-defined properties that model the behavior or characteristics for certain types of managed targets (such as a database, table, login, view,etc) in policy-based management.
facet property
A predefined property that applies to a specific facet in Policy-Based Management.
fact
A row in a fact table in a data warehouse. A fact contains values that define a data event such as a sales transaction.
fact dimension
A relationship between a dimension and a measure group in which the dimension main table is the same as the measure group table.
fact table
A central table in a data warehouse schema that contains numerical measures and keys relating facts to dimension tables.
factory method
A method, usually defined as static, whose purpose is to return an instance of a class.
fail over
To switch processing from a failed component to its backup component.
failed transaction
A transaction that encountered an error and was not able to complete.
failover cluster
A group of servers that are in one location and that are networked together for the purpose of providing live backup in case one of the servers fails.
failover clustering
A high availability process in which an instance of an application or a service, running over one machine, can fail-over onto another machine in the failover cluster in the case the first one fails.
failover partner
The server to use if the connection to the primary server fails. The failover partner can be obtained by two methods. In the first method, SQL Native Client caches the failover partner server name when connecting to the primary server. In the second method, the failover partner is explicitly specified in the connection string.
fail-safe operator
A user who receives the alert if the designated operator cannot be reached.
failure notification
A type of cache notification triggered when the cache client misses one or more cache notifications.
fatal error
An error that causes the system or a program to fail abruptly with no hope of recovery. An example of a fatal error is an uncaught exception that cannot be handled.
federated database servers
A set of linked servers that shares the processing load of data by hosting partitions of a distributed partitioned view.
feed consumer
A software component that extracts items from a FeedSync feed and applies them to a destination replica by using a synchronization provider.
fiber
A Windows NT lightweight thread scheduled within a single OS thread.
fiber mode
A situation where an instance of SQL Server allocates one Windows thread per SQL scheduler, and then allocates one fiber per worker thread, up to the value set in the max worker threads option.
field
An area in a window or record that stores a single data value.
field length
In bulk copy, the maximum number of characters needed to represent a data item in a bulk copy character format data file.
field marshaller
A SQL Server feature that handles marshaling for fields.
field terminator
In bulk copy, one or more characters marking the end of a field or row, separating one field or row in the data file from the next.
file backup
A backup of all the data in one or more files or filegroups.
file differential backup
A backup of one or more files containing only changes made to each file since its most recent file backup. A file differential backup requires a full file backup as a base.
file DSN
file Data Source Names. File-based data sources shared among all users with the same drivers installed. These data sources are not dedicated to a user or local to a computer.
file mapping
The association of a file's contents with a portion of the virtual address space of a process.
file restore
An operation that restores one or more files of a database.
file rollover
An option that causes SQL Server to close the current file and create a new file when the maximum file size is reached.
filegroup
A named collection of one or more data files that forms a single unit of data allocation or for administration of a database.
file-mapping object
An object that maintains the association of a file's contents with a portion of the virtual address space of a process.
fill factor
An attribute of an index that defines how full the SQL Server Database Engine should make each page of the index.
filter forgotten knowledge
The knowledge that is used as the starting point for filter tracking. A filter-tracking replica can save storage space by removing ghosts and advancing the filter forgotten knowledge to contain the highest version of the ghosts that have been removed.
filter key
A 4-byte value that maps to a filter in a filter key map.
filtered replica
A replica that stores item data only for items that are in a filter, such as a media storage replica that stores only songs that are rated as three stars or better.
filter-tracking replica
A replica that can identify which items are in a filter and which have moved in or out of the filter recently.
fine-grained lock
A lock that applies to a small amount of code or data.
fit
One of the criteria used for evaluating the success of a data mining algorithm. Fit is typically represented as a value between 0 and 1, and is calculated by taking the covariance between the predicted and actual values of evaluated cases and dividing by the standard deviations of the same predicted and actual values.
fixed database role
A predefined role that exists in each database. The scope of the role is limited to the database in which it is defined.
fixed server role
A predefined role that exists at the server level. The scope of the role is limited to the SQL Server instance in which it is defined.
FK
A key in a database table that comes from another table (also know as the "referenced table") and whose values match the primary key (PK) or unique key in the referenced table.
flat file
A file consisting of records of a single record type in which there is no embedded structure information that governs relationships between records.
flatten
To convert a nested structure into a flat structure.
flattened interface
An interface created to combine members of multiple interfaces.
flattened rowset
A multidimensional data set presented as a two-dimensional rowset in which unique combinations of elements of multiple dimensions are combined on an axis.
flexible ID
An identifier that is assigned to various synchronization entities, such as replicas. The identifier can be of fixed or variable length.
flexible identifier
An identifier that is assigned to various synchronization entities, such as replicas. The identifier can be of fixed or variable length.
fold count
A value that represents the number of partitions that will be created within the original data set.
folder hierarchy
A bounded namespace that uniquely identifies all reports, folders, shared data source items, and resources that are stored in and managed by a report server.
forced service
In a database mirroring session, a failover initiated by the database owner upon the failure of the principal server that transfers service to the mirror database while it is in an unknown state. Data may be lost.
foreign key
A key in a database table that comes from another table (also know as the "referenced table") and whose values match the primary key (PK) or unique key in the referenced table.
foreign key association
An association between entities that is managed through foreign key properties.
foreign table
A table that contains a foreign key.
format file
A file containing meta information (such as data type and column size) that is used to interpret data when being read from or written to a data file.
forward-only cursor
A cursor that cannot be scrolled; rows can be read only in sequence from the first row to the last row.
free-form language
A language whose syntax is not constrained by the position of characters on a line. C and Pascal are free-form languages; FORTRAN is not.
full backup
A backup of an entire database.
full differential backup
A backup of all files in the database, containing only changes made to the database since the most recent full backup. A full differential backup requires a full backup as a base.
full outer join
A type of outer join in which all rows in all joined tables are included, whether they are matched or not. For example, a full outer join between titles and publishers shows all titles and all publishers, even those that have no match.
full recovery model
A database recovery mode that fully logs all transactions and retains all the log records until after they are backed up. The database can be recovered to the point of failure if the tail of the log is backed up after the failure. All forms of recovery are supported.
full-text catalog
A collection of full-text index components and other files that are organized in a specific directory structure and contain the data that is needed to perform queries.
full-text enabling
The process of allowing full-text querying to occur on the current database.
full-text query
As a SELECT statement, a query that searches for words, phrases, or multiple forms of a word or phrase in the character-based columns (of char, varchar, text, ntext, nchar, or nvarchar data types). The SELECT statement returns those rows meeting the search criteria.
full-text search
A search for one or more documents, records, or strings based on all of the actual text data rather than on an index containing a limited set of keywords.
Full-Text service
The SQL Server component that performs the full-text querying.
full-width character
In a double-byte character set, a character that is represented by 2 bytes and typically has a half-width variant.
function
A piece of code that operates as a single logical unit. A function is called by name, accepts optional input parameters, and returns a status and optional output parameters. Many programming languages support functions.
fuzzy grouping
In Integration Services, a data cleaning methodology that examines values in a dataset and identifies groups of related data rows and the one data row that is the canonical representation of the group.
fuzzy matching
In Integration Services, a lookup methodology that uses an approximate matching algorithm to locate similar data values in a reference table.
GAC
A computer-wide code cache that stores assemblies specifically installed to be shared by many applications on the computer.
gap depth
A measure that specifies the distance between data series that are displayed along distinct rows, as a result of clustering.
garbage collection
A process for automatic recovery of heap memory. Blocks of memory that had been allocated but are no longer in use are freed, and blocks of memory still in use may be moved to consolidate the free memory into larger blocks.
garbage collector
The part of the operating system that performs garbage collection.
gated link
A protected link between two or more objects. During execution, permissions are not checked across the object relationship once it has been established and credentials don't have to be checked several times. This type of link is useful when it is not appropriate or manageable to give permissions to many dependent objects.
gather-write operation
A performance optimization where the Database Engine collects multiple modified data pages into a single write operation.
GC
A process for automatic recovery of heap memory. Blocks of memory that had been allocated but are no longer in use are freed, and blocks of memory still in use may be moved to consolidate the free memory into larger blocks.
generated code
Code that is automatically generated for the client project based on operations and entities exposed in the middle tier when a RIA Services link exists between the server and client projects.
generator
The component of Notification Services that matches events to subscriptions and produces notifications.
geographic data
A type of spatial data that stores ellipsoidal (round-earth) data, such as GPS latitude and longitude coordinates.
geometric data
A type of spatial data that supports planar, or Euclidean (flat-earth), data.
ghost
An item or change unit in a filtered replica that was in the filter and has moved out.
ghost record
Row in the leaf level of an index that has been marked for deletion, but has not yet been deleted by the database engine.
ghost row
Row in the leaf level of an index that has been marked for deletion, but has not yet been deleted by the database engine.
global assembly cache
A computer-wide code cache that stores assemblies specifically installed to be shared by many applications on the computer.
global default
A default that is defined for a specific database and is shared by columns of different tables.
global ID
A unique identifier that is assigned to a data item. The identifier must be unique across all clients. A global identifier is a flexible identifier and so can be any format, but it is typically a GUID and an 8-byte prefix.
global identifier
A unique identifier that is assigned to a data item. The identifier must be unique across all clients. A global identifier is a flexible identifier and so can be any format, but it is typically a GUID and an 8-byte prefix.
global rule
A rule that is defined for a specific database and is shared by columns of different tables.
global subscription
A subscription to a merge publication with an assigned priority value used for conflict detection and resolution.
globalization
The process of designing and developing a software product to function in multiple locales. Globalization involves identifying the locales that must be supported, designing features that support those locales, and writing code that functions equally well in any of the supported locales.
granularity
A description, from "coarse" to "fine", of a computer activity or feature (such as screen resolution, searching and sorting, or time slice allocation) in terms of the size of the units it handles (pixels, sets of data, or time slices). The larger the pieces, the coarser the granularity.
granularity attribute
The single attribute is used to specify the level of granularity for a given dimension in relation to a given measure group.
graphical query designer
A query designer provided by the Reporting Services that allows the user to interactively build a query and view the results for data source types SQL Server, Oracle, OLE DB, and ODBC.
graphics primitive
A basic shape (a point, a line, circle, curve, or polygon) that a graphics adapter can manipulate as a discrete entity.
group
A collection of users, computers, contacts, and other groups that is used as security or as e-mail distribution collections. Distribution groups are used only for e-mail. Security groups are used both to grant access to resources and as e-mail distribution lists.
grouping
A set of data that is grouped together in a report.
half-width character
In a double-byte character set, a character that is represented by one byte and typically has a full-width variant.
hard disk
An inflexible platter coated with material in which data can be recorded magnetically with read/write heads.
hard page-break renderer
A rendering extension that maintains the report layout and formatting so that the resulting file is optimized for a consistent printing experience, or to view the report online in a book format.
hard-coding
Basing numeric constants on the assumed length of a string; assumptions about language or culture-specific matters fixed in the code - e.g., string length, date formats, etc.
hard-coding
The process of putting string or character literals in the main body of code, instead of in external resource files.
hardware security module
A secure device that provides cryptographic capabilities, typically by providing private keys used in Public-key cryptography.
hardware token
A secure device that provides cryptographic capabilities, typically by providing private keys used in Public-key cryptography.
hash partitioning
A way of partitioning a table or index by allowing SQL Server to apply an internal hash algorithm to spread rows across partitions based on the number of partitions specified and the values of one or more partitioning columns.
heat map
A type of map presentation where the intensity of color for each polygon corresponds to the related analytical data. For example, low values in a range appear as blue (cold) and high values as red (hot).
helpdesk
An individual or team of support professionals that provide technical assistance for an organization's network, hardware devices, and software.
heterogeneous data
Data stored in multiple formats.
hierarchy tree
A structure in which elements are related to each other hierarchically.
high availability
The ability of a system or device to be usable when it is needed. When expressed as a percentage, high availability is the actual service time divided by the required service time. Although high availability does not guarantee that a system will have no downtime, a network often is considered highly available if it achieves 99.999 percent network uptime.
high availability
A Windows Server AppFabric feature that supports continuous availability of cached data by storing copies of that data on multiple cache hosts.
high watermark
A memory consumption threshold on each cache host that specifies when objects are evicted out of memory, regardless of whether they have expired or not, until memory consumption goes back down to the low watermark.
high whisker
The highest value that is not an outlier on a box plot chart.
hint
An option or strategy specified for enforcement by the SQL Server query processor on SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE statements. The hint overrides any execution plan the query optimizer might select for a query.
history
A list of the user's actions within a program, such as commands entered in an operating system shell, menus passed through using Gopher, or links followed using a Web browser.
holdability
Refers to the possibility of leaving result sets open ("on hold") that have been processed and are normally closed after this. For instance: "SQL Server supports holdability at the connection level only."
holdout
A percentage of training data that is reserved for use in measuring the accuracy of the structure of the data mining model.
holdout data
A percentage of training data that is reserved for use in measuring the accuracy of the structure of the data mining model.
holdout store
The data mining structure that is used to cache the holdout data. It contains references to the holdout data.
Home
Root folder in report server folder namespace.
home page
A document that serves as a starting point in a hypertext system. On the World Wide Web, an entry page for a set of Web pages and other files in a Web site. The home page is displayed by default when a visitor navigates to the site using a Web browser.
homogeneous data
Data that comes from multiple data sources that are all managed by the same software.
hop
In data communications, one segment of the path between routers on a geographically dispersed network.
hopping window
A type of window in which consecutive windows "hop" forward in time by a fixed period. The window is defined by two time spans: the period P and the window length L. For every P time unit a new window of size L is created.
horizontal partitioning
To segment a single table into multiple tables based on selected rows.
hot standby
A standby server that can support rapid failover without a loss of data from committed transactions.
hot standby server
A standby server that can support rapid failover without a loss of data from committed transactions.
HSM
A secure device that provides cryptographic capabilities, typically by providing private keys used in Public-key cryptography.
HTML
An application of the Standard Generalized Markup Language that uses tags to mark elements, such as text and graphics, in a document to indicate how Web browsers should display these elements to the user and should respond to user actions.
HTML Viewer
UI component consisting of a report toolbar and other navigation elements used to work with a report.
hybrid OLAP
A storage mode that uses a combination of multidimensional data structures and relational database tables to store multidimensional data.