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154 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what are the cut off for low vision?
20/70-20/200
what is the best visual acuity acceptable for vi services?
20/70
what are the 5 components that can be manipulated to help students with low vision?
light, contrast, color, distance and size
what are two conditions that dont' like light directly shined on an activity
anaridia and albinism
what does the hirschberg test do?
it checks cornea reflexs (strabismus)
what does the krimsky test do?
checks for fixation by having the eye remaing steady and maintaine
what does the unilateral alternating covering test do?
checks for eye durn (exo-exo tropia)
what does the base out prisim test do?
it checks for small strabisusm by covering one eye with a prisms then checking the other, the eys shouldn't move
what does the VOR stand for?
vestibular ocular reflex
whow do you test the VOR?
by spinging in a circle with child and see how quickly their eyes stop
what does the retinoscopy test?
it helps find the right perscription lens for children
how can you alter the play area for low vision?
good overhead lighting
lamp for near tasks
toys on contrasting shelf
where do you keep a lamp for near tasks?
lower edge of the opaque shade is below eye level
how can you alter the eating area for low vision?
simple dishes
dimmer stiwch
contrasting utensisl
how can you alter the bedroom area for low vision?
dimmer swtich
color of the walls
reduce clutter
how can you alter the bathroom area for low vision?
controasting tub mat, mat on side of tub
reduce mirrored surfaces
light in shower
what are the benefits/cons of sun light?
diffuses light and enhcanes contrast
may make room uneven light
florescent light pros/cons
high illumnation
flickers
buzzes
veiling glare
what are the two types of glare
veiling and discomfort
what are typoscopes used for?
to reduce surcage glare and keep one's place while reading
what are some simple devices to control illumination and glare
lamps
visors
side shilds
sunglasses
typoscoep
Name five tests for fixation an eye alignment used for infants
versions test
hirshberg test
krimsky test
unliater and laternating cover test
base out prism test
what are the three tests for papillary response, VOR and refractive erro for infants?
swinging falshlight test
VOR
Retinoscopy
what are the 3 behavioral test for vision in infants?
contrast senstivity
depth perception
visual fields
what are two elextrophysioligical tests used for infants and vision?
visual evoked peoential (VEP)
electroretinography
what does VOR stand for?
vestibular ocular reflext
what does VEP stand for?
visual evoked poetnital
what 5 devices are used to test visual fields?
amsler grid
conforntation test
tangent screen perimetry
maunal bowl
computerized bowl perimetry
what two tests are used to test alignment?
hirschberg test and the cover/uncover test
what two tests are used to test color vision?
isharara and farnsworth d15
what are the three tonomotry instruments?
schiotz tonometry
applanation tonometry
noncontact tonomtery
what does tonometry measure?
eye pressure
what is a phoropter?
it is the device used to create refraction through differnt lens srenths that are easily changed
what does the goldman perimeter test? How?
visual field testing by by displaying test lights of varying brightness and size
what is a slitlamp used for?
to see an optical cross section of the eye and inspect the cornea and the lens
what is an ophthalmoscope
an isntrument used to look into the eye to check the health of the retina and the viterous body . direct and indirect
what is keratomyrery used for?
it measure the curvaurate or the cornea
what is a retinoscope used for?
it tests the corrective options for refractive errorse once teh reflex is neutralized the proper perscription is discovered
how is steropisis tested in infants?
by doing a depth perectpion test as the child wears glasses and is presented with differnt reacting cards
what does VEP test?
brains waves done by a response from shapes
what does an electroretinograph test?
the electric response of the retina
what is refraction?
the bednign of light rays as it travedsl from one clear medium of a certian density to a clear medium of a differnt density: glasses
what is a diopter?
the unit of measurement of refraction.
what is a sever number for dioper perscription?
10
what's a sphere lens?
lesne that has a convex or concave surface.
what's a plus lens? is it convex or concave?
magnifies an image, for farsightedness. it is convex
what is a minus lens? concave or convex?
for nearsightnendss, it minifies and focuses light rays, it is concave
what type of lesn is used to correct astigmatism?
cylinder
what cuases astigmatism?
unsmooth corenea or mishapen eye
a minus sign indicates:
nearsightedness, myopia
a plus sign indicates
hyperopia or farsignedness
what is does the presence of a cylindrical perscription indicate?
astigmatism
the astigmaistm pescription is most commonly writting with a ____ sign but somtiems a ___ sign
minus
plus
does the cylindrical perscription indicate refractive errors?
no only astigmatism
after the plus or minus sign and a number, what follows the cylindrical lens perscription?
a x or @ followed by the axis the lens is to be ground
if the child does nto have an astigmatisms, what does the dr write
their refractive perscription follwed by sphere.
if the child has only astigmatism and no refractive error how is the child's perscription written?
Plano and -# x #
what is a prism lens perscription needed for?
strasbismus
what are the four terms that can be writtin after a prism lens perscription?
BI, BD, BO, BU
Base in, down, out, up
is a prisim lens plus or minus?
plus, it is normally not written
why is an add lens perscribed?
for bifocals
is an add lens plus or minus
plus
if balance is written as an eye perscription what does it mean?
the eye is non fuctional and a balnaced lens will be perscribed
what is the abbreviation for left eye
OS
what is the abbreviation for right eye?
OD
what is emmetropia?
no refrractive error
how is emmetroipia idnicated on pescriptions?
plano
ACL
anterior chamber lesn
ARMD
age related macular degneration
BDR
background diabetic retinopathy
b.i.d.
two times a day
BVO
branch vein occlusion
Cat.
cataract
c(with a line over it)c
with correction
CC
cheif complaint
CF
counts fingers
CL
contact lens
CVA
cerebral vasucalr accident
CVO
cetnral vein occlusion
d.
day
Dx
diagnosis
ENUC
eneuclated
FC
finger counting
FHx
has a family histroy of
GL
eyeglasses
gtts
eyedrops
h.
hour
HA
headache
HM
hand motion
h.s.
at bedtime
Hx
history
IOL
intraocular lens
IOP
introcular pressutre
LP
lightperception
LProj
light projection
NLP
no light perception
OD
right eye
OS
left eye
OU
both eyes
PCL
posteriour chamber lens
P.D.
pupillary distance
PDR
proliferative diabetic retinopathy
PERRLA
pupils equally round and reactive to light and accomodation
PROS
prosthesis
PVD
posteriour vietrous detachemnt
q.
each, every
q.d.
once a day
q.h.
every hour
q.i.d.
four times a day
q.2h.
every two hours
RD
retinal detachmetn
RP
retinitis pigmentosa
RX
precription
s(with a line over it)c
without correction
sig.
label
Sx
symptoms
t.i.d.
three tiems a day
tono
tonometry
Tx
treatment
ung.
ointment
UTT
unable to test
VF
visual field
albinisim, cataracts, marfan's RP and ROP all have what type of visual problems?
refractive erros
what does a retinoscopy examine?
determine the presence of refractive errors
what does a keratopmeter do?
it is used to measure the curvature of the two primary meridians of the corna
What can be used to test visual fields?
amsler grid, confrontation, tangent screen perimetry, maunal bowl and compterized bowl perimetry
what does a direct opthalmoscope do?
it provides a small field to view the retina
what does an indirect opthalmoscope do?
it allwos you to view the central and perimeral retina
what does a slit lamp do?
examines exteriror portions of the ey (corena, lens and anterior viteroous)
what does the gonioscope do?
is used with the slit lamp to view the filtration angle of the anterial chamber
wath does the electroretinogram do?
records info about the rods and cones (useful for RP)
what does the electrooculogram do?
inner movemnts of the eye, abnormalites of the retinal pigment epithelium
what does a VER or VOR test measure?
the electrail response of the viusal cortex
glaucoma, macural degernation, albinism and optice nver probelms all have problems with what?
contrast senstitivty
what does the hirschberg test for?
strabsimus
what does the krimksy test for?
fixation
what are 3behavioral tests used for infants?
contrast sensitivyt, depth percetption, visual fields
Albinism
astigmatism
fluxuating VA: 20/100-20/400
nystagums
photophobia
scotomas
strabismus
Anaridia
fluxuating VA: 20/200
nystagmus acuity
peripheral field loss corresponding
photophobia
Cataracts
nystagmus
photophobia
poor color vision
strabismus
visual acuity
Coloboma
depth perception
Nystagmus
Peripheral field loss may occur if in retina
Photophobia
Visual acuity
CVI
central vision loss
fluxuating VA
nystagmus
nystagmus
photophobia
visual perception
Glaucoma
fluxuating VA
peripheral loss
poor night vision
Macular Degeneration
central vision loss
photophobia
poor color vision
ONA
fluxuating VA
night vision
nystagmus
photophobia
poor color vision
visual perception
ONH
Fluxuating VA
nystagmus
variable field defects
Retinal Detachment
blurry vision
central vision issues
field loss
scotomas
strabismus
Retinoblastoma
depth perception
strabismus
ROP
field loss
scotomas
strabismus
visual acuity (myopia)
RP
depth perception
night vision
peripheral vision loss
Toxoplasmosis
central vision issues
field loss
Usher’s Syndrome
peripheral vision
strabismus: what to test
binocular vision and depth perception
scotoma: what to test
central vision
color vision